Cook - Voyages
Narrative of Captain Cook's second Voyage round the World.
On the 13th of July, Captain Cook sailed from Plymouth, and on the 29th of the same month anchored in Funchiale Road, in the island of Madeira. Having obtained a supply of water, wine, and other necessaries at that island, he left it on the 1st of August, and sailed to the southward. As he proceeded in his voyage, he made three puncheons of beer of the inspissated juice of malt; and the liquor produced was very brisk and drinkable. The heat of the weather, and the agitation of the ship, had hitherto withstood all the endeavours of our people to prevent this juice from being in a high state of fermentation. If it could be kept from fermenting, it would be a most valuable article at sea.
The captain, having found that his stock of water would not last to the Cape of Good Hope, without putting his men to a scanty allowance, resolved to stop at St. Jago, one of the Cape de Verd islands, for a supply. At Port Praya, in this island, he anchored on the 10th of August, and by the 14th had completed his water, and procured some other refreshments; upon which he set sail and prosecuted his course. He embraced the occasion, which his touching at St. Jago afforded him, of giving such a delineation and description of Port Praya, and of the supplies there to be obtained, as might be of service to future navigators.
On the 20th of the month, the rain poured down upon our voyagers, not in drops but in streams; and the wind at the same time being variable and rough, the people were obliged to attend so constantly upon the decks, that few of them escaped being completely soaked. This circumstance is mentioned, to show the method that was taken by Captain Cook to preserve his men from the evil consequences of the wet to which they had been exposed. He had every thing to fear from the rain, which is a great promoter of sickness in hot climates. But to guard against this effect, he pursued some hints that had been suggested to him by Sir Hugh Palliser and Captain Campbell, and took care that the ship should be aired and dried with fires made between the decks, and that the damp places of the vessel should be smoked; beside which the people were ordered to air their bedding and to wash and dry their clothes, whenever there was an opportunity. The result of these precautions was, that there was not one sick person on board the Resolution.
Captain Cook, on the 8th of September, crossed the line in the longitude of 8° west, and proceeded, without meeting anything remarkable, till the 11th of October. When at 6h. 24m. 12s. by Mr. Kendal's watch, the moon rose about four digits eclipsed; soon after which the gentlemen prepared to observe the end of the eclipse. The observers were, the captain himself, and Mr. Forster, Mr. Wales, Mr. Pickersgill, Mr. Gilbert, and Mr. Harvey.
Our commander had been informed, before he left England, that he sailed at an improper season of the year, and that he should meet with much calm weather, near and under the line. But though such weather may happen in some years, it is not always, or even generally to be expected. So far was it from being the case with Captain Cook, that he had a brisk south-west wind in those very latitudes where the calms had been predicted: nor was he exposed to any of the tornadoes, which are so much spoken of by other navigators. On the 29th of the month, between eight and nine o'clock at night, when our voyagers were near the Cape of Good Hope, the whole sea, within the compass of their sight, became at once, as it were, illuminated. The captain had been formerly convinced, by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander, that such appearances in the ocean were occasioned by insects. Mr. Forster, however, seemed disposed to adopt a different opinion. To determine the question, our commander ordered some buckets of water to be drawn up from alongside the ship, which were found full of an innumerable quantity of small globular insects, about the size of a common pin's head, and quite transparent. Though no life was perceived in them, there could be no doubt of their being living animals, when in their own proper element: and Mr. Forster became now well satisfied that they were the cause of the sea's illumination.
On the 30th, the Resolution and Adventure anchored in Table Bay; soon after which Captain Cook went on shore, and, accompanied by Captain Furneaux, and the two Mr. Forsters, waited on Baron Plettenberg, the governor of the Cape of Good Hope, who received the gentlemen with great politeness, and promised them every assistance the place could afford. From him our commander learned, that two French ships from the Mauritius, about eight months before, had discovered land in the latitude of 48° south, along which they sailed forty miles, till they came to a bay, into which they were upon the point of entering, when they were driven off, and separated in a hard gale of wind. Previously to this misfortune, they had lost some of their boats and people, that had been sent to sound the bay. Captain Cook was also informed by Baron Plettenberg, that in the month of March, two other ships from the island of Mauritius, had touched at the Cape in their way to the South Pacific Ocean; where they were going to make discoveries, under the command of M. Marion.
From the healthy condition of the crews, both of the Resolution and Adventure, it was imagined by the captain that his stay at the Cape would be very short. But the necessity of waiting till the requisite provisions could be prepared and collected, kept him more than three weeks at this place; which time was improved by him in ordering both the ships to be caulked and painted, and in taking care that, in every respect, their condition should be as good as when they left England.
On the 22d of November, our commander sailed from the Cape of Good Hope, and proceeded on his voyage, in search of a southern continent. Having gotten clear of the land, he directed his course for Cape Circumcision; and, judging that cold weather would soon approach, he ordered slops to be served to such of the people as were in want of them, and gave to each man the fear-nought jacket and trowsers allowed by the admiralty. On the 29th, the wind, which was west-north-west, increased to a storm, that continued, with some few intervals of moderate weather, till the 6th of December. By this gale, which was attended with hail and rain, and which blew at times with such violence that the ships could carry no sails, our voyagers were driven far to the eastward of their intended course, and no hopes were left to the captain of reaching Cape Circumcision. A still greater misfortune was the loss of the principal part of the live stock on board, consisting of sheep, hogs, and geese. At the same time, the sudden transition from warm mild weather, to weather which was extremely cold and wet, was so severely felt by our people, that it was necessary to make some addition to their allowance of spirits, by giving each of them a dram on particular occasions.
Our navigators, on the 10th of December, began to meet with islands of ice. One of these islands was so much concealed from them by the haziness of the weather, accompanied with snow and sleet, that they were steering directly towards it, and did not see it till it was at a less distance than that of a mile. Captain Cook judged it to be about fifty feet high, and half a mile in circuit. It was flat at the top, and its sides rose in a perpendicular direction, against which the sea broke to a great height. The weather continuing to be hazy, the captain, on account of the ice islands, was obliged to proceed with the utmost caution. Six of them were passed on the 12th, some of which were nearly two miles in circuit, and sixty feet high; nevertheless, such were the force and height of the waves, that the sea broke quite over them. Hence was exhibited a view, that for a few moments was pleasing to the eye; but the pleasure was soon swallowed up in the horror which seized upon the mind, from the prospect of danger. For if a ship should be so unfortunate as to get on the weather side of one of these islands, she would be dashed to pieces in a moment.
The vessels, on the 14th, were stopped by an immense field of low ice, to which no end could be seen, either to the east, west, or south. In different parts of this field were islands or hills of ice, like those which our voyagers had found floating in the sea, and twenty of which had presented themselves to view the day before. Some of the people on board imagined that they saw land over the ice, and Captain Cook himself at first entertained the same sentiment. But upon more narrowly examining these ice hills, and the various appearances they made when seen through the haze, he was induced to change his opinion. On the 18th, though in the morning our navigators had been quite imbayed, they were, notwithstanding, at length enabled to get clear of the field of ice. They were, however, at the same time, carried in among the ice islands, which perpetually succeeded one another; which were almost equally dangerous; and the avoiding of which was a matter of the greatest difficulty. But perilous as it is to sail in a thick fog, among these floating rocks, as our commander properly called them; this is preferable to the being entangled with immense fields of ice under the same circumstances. In this latter case the great danger to be apprehended, is the getting fast in the ice; a situation which would be alarming in the highest degree.
It had been a generally received opinion, that such ice as hath now been described, is formed in bays and rivers. Agreeably to this supposition, our voyagers were led to believe that land was not far distant, and that it lay to the southward behind the ice. As, therefore, they had sailed above thirty leagues along the edge of the ice, without finding a passage to the south, Captain Cook determined to run thirty or forty leagues to the east, and afterward to endeavour to get to the southward. If, in this attempt, he met with no land or other impediment, his design was to stretch behind the ice, and thus to bring the matter to a decision. The weather, at this time, affected the senses with a feeling of cold much greater than that which was pointed out by the thermometer, so that the whole crew complained. In order the better to enable them to sustain the severity of the cold, the Captain directed the sleeves of their jackets to be lengthened with baize; and had a cap made for each man of the same stuff, strengthened with canvass. These precautions greatly contributed to their comfort and advantage. It is worthy of observation, that although the weather was as sharp, on the 25th of December, as might have been expected, in the same month of the year, in any part of England, this was the middle of summer with our navigators. Some of the people now appearing to have symptoms of the scurvy, fresh wort was given them every day, prepared under the direction of the surgeons, from the malt which had been provided for the purpose.
By the 29th, it became sufficiently ascertained, from the course our commander had pursued, that the field of ice, along which the ships had sailed, did not join to any land as had been conjectured. At this time, Captain Cook came to a resolution, provided he met with no impediment, to run as far west as the meridian of Cape Circumcision. While he was prosecuting this design, a gale arose, on the 31st, which brought with it such a sea, as rendered it very dangerous for the vessels to remain among the ice; and the danger was increased by discovering an immense field to the north, which extended farther than the eye could reach. As our voyagers were not above two or three miles from this field, and were surrounded by loose ice, there was no time to deliberate. They hauled to the South; and though they happily got clear, it was not till the ships had received several hard knocks from the loose pieces, which were of the largest kind. On Friday, the 1st of January, 1773, the gale abated; and on the next day, in the afternoon, our people had the felicity of enjoying the sight of the moon, the face of which had not been seen by them but once since they had departed from the Cape of Good Hope. Hence a judgment may be formed of the sort of weather they had been exposed to, from the time of their leaving that place. The present opportunity was eagerly seized, for making several observations of the sun and moon.
Captain Cook was now nearly in the same longitude which is assigned to Cape Circumcision, and about ninety-five leagues to the south of the latitude in which it is said to lie. At the same time the weather was so clear, that land might have been seen at the distance of fourteen or fifteen leagues. He concluded it, therefore, to be very probable, that what Bouvet took for land was nothing but mountains of ice, surrounded by loose or field ice. Our present navigators had naturally been led into a similar mistake. The conjecture, that such ice as had lately been seen was joined to land, was a very plausible one, though not founded on fact. Upon the whole, there was good reason to believe, that no land was to be met with, under this meridian, between the latitude of fifty-five and fifty-nine, where some had been supposed to exist.
Amidst the obstructions Captain Cook was exposed to, from the ice islands which perpetually succeeded each other, he derived one advantage from them, and that was, a supply of fresh water. Though the melting and stowing away of the ice takes up some time, and is, indeed, rather tedious, this method of watering is otherwise the most expeditious our commander had ever known. The water produced was perfectly sweet and well tasted. Upon the ice islands, penguins, albatrosses, and other birds were frequently seen. It had hitherto been the received opinion, that such birds never go far from land, and that the sight of them is a sure indication of its vicinity. That this opinion is not well founded, at least where ice islands exist, was now evinced by multiplied experience.
By Sunday the 17th of January, Captain Cook reached the latitude of 67° 15' south, when he could advance no farther. At this time the ice was entirely closed to the south, in the whole extent from east to west-south-west, without the least appearance of any opening. The captain, therefore, thought it no longer prudent to persevere in sailing southward; especially as the summer was already half spent, and there was little reason to hope that it would be found practicable get round the ice. Having taken this resolution, he determined to proceed directly in search of the land which had lately been discovered by the French; and as, in pursuing his purpose, the weather was clear at intervals, he spread the ships abreast four miles from each other, in order the better to investigate any thing that might lie in their way. On the 1st of February our voyagers were in the latitude of 48° 30' south, and in longitude 58° 7' east, nearly in the meridian of the island of St. Mauritius. This was the situation in which the land said to have been discovered by the French was to be expected; but as no signs of it had appeared, our commander bore away to the east. Captain Furneaux, on the same day, informed Captain Cook, that he had just seen a large float of sea, or rock weed, and about it several of the birds called divers. These were certain signs of the vicinity of land, though whether it lay to the east or west could not possibly be known. Our commander, therefore, formed the design of proceeding in his present latitude four or five degrees of longitude to the west of the meridian he was now in, and then to pursue his researches eastward. The west and north-west winds, which had continued for some days, prevented him from carrying this purpose into execution. However, he was convinced from the perpetual high sea he had lately met with, that there could be no great extent of land to the west.
While Captain Cook, on the next day, was steering eastward, Captain Furneaux told him that he thought the land was to the north-west of them; as he had, at one time, observed the sea to be smooth, when the wind blew in that direction. This observation was by no means conformable to the remarks which had been made by our commander himself. Nevertheless, such was his readiness to attend to every suggestion, that he resolved to clear up the point, if the wind would admit of his getting to the west in any reasonable time. The wind, by veering to the north, did admit of his pursuing the search; and the result of it was, his conviction that if any land was near, it could only be an island of no considerable extent.
Captain Cook and his philosophical friends, while they were traversing this part, of the southern ocean, paid particular attention to the variation of the compass, which they found to be from 27° 50' to 30° 26' west. Probably the mean of the two extremes, viz. 29° 4', was the nearest the truth, as it coincided with the variation observed on board the Adventure. One unaccountable circumstance is worthy of notice, though it did not now occur for the first time. It is, that when the sun was on the starboard of the ship, the variation was the least; and when on the larboard side, the greatest.
On the 8th, our commander, in consequence of no signals having been answered by the Adventure, had reason to apprehend that a separation had taken place. After waiting two days, during which guns were kept discharging, and false fires were burned in the night, the fact was confirmed; so that the Resolution was obliged to proceed alone in her voyage. As she pursued her course, penguins and other birds, from time to time, appeared in great numbers; the meeting with which gave our navigators some hopes of finding land, and occasioned various speculations with regard to its situation. Experience, however, convinced them, that no stress was to be laid on such hopes. They were so often deceived, that they could no longer look upon any of the oceanic birds, which frequent high latitudes, as sure signs of the vicinity of land.
In the morning of the 17th, between midnight and three o'clock, lights were seen in the heavens, similar to those which are known in the northern hemisphere, by the name of the Aurora Borealis. Captain Cook had never heard that an Aurora Australis had been seen before. The officer of the watch observed, that it sometimes broke out in spiral rays, and in a circular form; at which time, its light was very strong, and its appearance beautiful. It was not perceived to have any particular direction. On the contrary, at various times, it was conspicuous in different parts of the heavens, and diffused its light throughout the whole atmosphere.
On the 20th, our navigators imagined that they saw land to the south-west. Their conviction of its real existence was so strong, that they had no doubt of the matter; and accordingly they endeavoured to work up to it, in doing which the weather was favourable to their purpose. However what had been taken for land proved only to be clouds, that in the evening entirely disappeared, and left a clear horizon, in which nothing could be discerned but ice islands. At night the Aurora Australis was again seen, and the appearance it assumed was very brilliant and luminous. It first discovered itself in the east, and in a short time spread over the whole heavens.
In the night of the 23rd, when the ship was in latitude 61° 52' south, and longitude 95° 2' east, the weather being exceedingly stormy, thick, and hazy, with sleet and snow, our voyagers were on every side surrounded with danger. In such a situation it was natural for them to wish for daylight: but daylight, when it came, served only to increase their apprehensions, by exhibiting those huge mountains of ice to their view, which the darkness had prevented them from seeing. These unfavourable circumstances, at so advanced a season of the year, discouraged Captain Cook from putting into execution a resolution he had formed, of once more crossing the antarctic circle. Accordingly, early in the morning of the 24th, he stood to the north, with a very hard gale, and a very high sea, which made great destruction among the ice islands. But so far was this incident from being of any advantage to our navigators, that it greatly increased the number of pieces they had to avoid. The large pieces, which broke from the ice islands, were found to be much more dangerous than the islands themselves. While the latter rose so high out of the water, that they could generally be seen, unless the weather was very thick and hazy, before our people nearly approached them, the others could not be discerned, in the night, till they were under the ship's bows. These dangers, however, were now become so familiar to the captain and his company, that the apprehensions they caused were never of long duration; and a compensation was, in some degree, made for them, by the seasonable supplies of fresh water, which the ice islands afforded, and by their very romantic appearance. The foaming and dashing of the waves into the curious holes and caverns which were formed in many of them greatly heightened the scene; and the whole exhibited a view, that at once filled the mind with admiration and horror, and could only be described by the hand of an able painter.
In sailing from the 25th to the 28th, the wind was accompanied with a large hollow sea, which rendered Captain Cook certain, that no land, of any considerable extent, could lie within a hundred or a hundred and fifty leagues from east to south-west. Though this was still the summer season in that part of the world, and the weather was become somewhat warmer than it had been before, yet such were the effects of the cold, that a sow having farrowed nine pigs in the morning, all of them, notwithstanding the utmost care to prevent it, were killed before four o'clock in the afternoon. From the same cause, the captain himself and several of his people had their fingers and toes chilblained. For some days afterward, the cold considerably abated; but still it could not be said that there was summer weather, according to our commander's ideas of summer in the northern hemisphere, as far as sixty degrees of latitude, which was nearly as far as he had then been.
As he proceeded on his voyage, from the 28th of February to the 11th of March, he had ample reason to conclude, from the swell of the sea and other circumstances, that there could be no land to the south, but what must lie at a great distance.
The weather having been clear on the 13th and 14th, Mr. Wales had an opportunity of getting some observations of the sun and moon; the results of which, reduced to noon, when the latitude was 58° 22' south, gave 136° 22' east longitude. Mr. Kendal's and Mr. Arnold's watches gave each of them 134° 42'; and this was the first and only time in which they had pointed out the same longitude, since the ships had departed from England. The greatest difference, however, between them, since our voyagers had left the Cape, had not much exceeded two degrees.
From the moderate, and what might almost be called pleasant weather, which had occurred for two or three days, Captain Cook began to wish that he had been a few degrees of latitude farther south; and he was even tempted to incline his course that way. But he soon met with weather which convinced him that he had proceeded full far enough; and that the time was approaching when these seas could not be navigated without enduring intense cold. As he advanced in his course, he became perfectly assured, from repeated proofs, that he had left no land behind him in the direction of west-south-west; and that no land lay to the south on this side sixty degrees of latitude. He came, therefore, to a resolution, on the 17th, to quit the high southern latitudes, and to proceed to New Zealand, with a view of looking for the Adventure, and of refreshing his people. He had, also, some thoughts, and even a desire, of visiting the east coast of Van Dieman's Land, in order to satisfy himself whether it joined the coast of New South Wales. The wind however, not permitting him to execute this part of his design, he shaped his course for New Zealand, in sight of which he arrived on the 25th, and where he came to anchor on the day following, in Dusky Bay. He had now been a hundred and seventeen days at sea, during which time he had sailed three thousand six hundred and sixty-leagues without having once come within sight of land.
After so long a voyage, in a high southern latitude, it might reasonably have been expected, that many of Captain Cook's people would be ill of the scurvy. This, however, was not the case. So salutary were the effects of the sweet wort, and several articles of provision, and especially of the frequent airing and sweetening of the ship, that there was only one man on board who could be said to be much afflicted with the disease; and even in that man, it was chiefly occasioned by a bad habit of body, and a complication of other disorders.
As our commander did not like the place in which he had anchored, he sent Lieutenant Pickersgill over to the south-east side of the bay, in search of a better; and the lieutenant succeeded in finding a harbour that was in every respect desirable. In the meanwhile, the fishing-boat was very successful; returning with fish sufficient for the whole crew's supper and in the morning of the next day, as many were caught as served for dinner. Hence were derived certain hopes of being plentifully supplied with this article. Nor did the shores and woods appear more destitute of wild fowl; so that our people had the prospect of enjoying, with ease, what, in their situation, might be called the luxuries of life. These agreeable circumstances determined Captain Cook to stay some time in the bay, in order to examine it thoroughly; as no one had ever landed before on any of the southern parts of New Zealand.
On the 27th, the ship entered Pickersgill Harbour; for so it was called, from the name of the gentleman by whom it had first been discovered. Here wood, for fuel and other purposes, was immediately at hand; and a fine stream of fresh water was not above a hundred yards from the stern of the vessel. Our voyagers, being thus advantageously situated, began vigorously to prepare for their necessary occupations by clearing places in the woods, in order to set up the astronomer's observatory, and the forge for the iron work, and to erect tents for the sailmakers and coopers. They applied themselves, also, to the brewing of beer from the branches or leaves of a tree, which greatly resembled the American black spruce. Captain Cook was persuaded, from the knowledge which he had of this tree, and from the similarity it bore to the spruce, that, with the addition of inspissated juice of wort and molasses, it would make a very wholesome liquor, and supply the want of vegetables, of which the country was destitute. It appeared, by the event, that he was not mistaken in his judgment.
Several of the natives were seen on the 28th, who took little notice of the English, and were very shy of access; and the captain did not choose to force an intercourse with them, as he had been instructed, by former experience, that the best method of obtaining was to leave time and place to themselves. While our commander continued in his present situation, he took every opportunity of examining the bay. As he was prosecuting his survey of it, on the 6th of April, his attention was directed to the north side, where he discovered a fine capacious cove, in the bottom of which is a fresh-water river. On the west side are several beautiful cascades; and the shores are so steep that water might directly be conveyed from them into the ship. Fourteen ducks, besides, other birds, having been shot in this place, he gave it the name of Duck Cove. When he was returning in the evening, he met with three of the natives, one man and two women, whose fears he soon dissipated, and whom he engaged in a conversation, that was little understood on either side. The youngest of the women had a volubility of tongue that could not be exceeded; and she entertained Captain Cook, and the gentlemen who accompanied him with a dance.
By degrees, our commander obtained the good will and confidence of the Indians. His presents, however, were at first received with much indifference, hatchets and spike-nails excepted. At a visit, on the 12th, from a family of the natives, the captain, perceiving they approached the ship with great caution, met them in a boat, which he quitted when he came near them, and went into their canoe. After all, he could not prevail upon them to go on board the Resolution; but at length they put on shore in a little creek, and seating themselves abreast the English vessel, entered into familiar conversation with several of the officers and seamen; in which they paid a much greater regard to some, whom they probably mistook for females, than to others. So well indeed, were they now reconciled to our voyagers, that they took up their quarters nearly within the distance of a hundred yards from the ship's watering place. Captain Cook, in his interview with them, had caused the bagpipes and fife to play, and the drum to beat. The two former they heard with apparent insensibility; but the latter excited in them a certain degree of attention.
On the 18th, a chief, with whom some connexions had already been formed, was induced, together with his daughter, to come on board the Resolution. Previously to his doing it, he presented the captain with a piece of cloth and a green talk hatchet. He gave also a piece of cloth to Mr. Forster; and the girl gave another to Mr. Hodges. Though this custom of making presents, before any are received, is common with the natives of the South Sea isles, our commander had never till now seen it practised in New Zealand. Another thing performed by the chief before he went on board was the taking of a small green branch in his hand, with which he struck the ship's side several times, repeating a speech or prayer. This manner, as it were, of making peace is likewise prevalent among all the nations of the South Seas. When the chief was carried into the cabin, he viewed every part of it with some degree of surprise; but it was not possible to fix his attention to any one object for a single moment. The works of art appeared to him in the same light as those of nature, and were equally distant from his powers of comprehension. He and his daughter seemed to be the most struck with the number of the decks, and other parts of the ship.
As Captain Cook proceeded in examining Dusky Bay, he occasionally met with some few more of the natives, with regard to whom he used every mode of conciliation. On the 20th the chief and his family, who had been more intimate with our navigators than any of the rest of the Indians, went away, and never returned again. This was the more extraordinary, as in all his visits he had been gratified with presents. From different persons, he had gotten nine or ten hatchets, and three or four times that number of large spike nails, besides a variety of other articles. So far as these things might be deemed riches in New Zealand, he was undoubtedly become by far the most wealthy man in the whole country.
One employment of our voyagers, while in Dusky Bay, consisted in seal hunting, an animal which was found serviceable for three purposes. The skins were made use of for rigging, the fat afforded oil for the lamps, and the flesh was eaten. On the 24th, the captain, having five geese remaining of those he had brought with him from the Cape of Good Hope, went and left them at a place to which he gave the name of Goose Cove. This place he fixed upon for two reasons; first, because there were no inhabitants to disturb them; and, secondly, because here was the greatest supply of proper food; so that he had no doubt of their breeding, hoped that in time they might spread over the whole country, to its eminent advantage. Some days afterward, when everything belonging to the ship had been removed from the shore, he set fire to the top-wood in order to dry a piece of ground, which he dug up, and sowed with several sorts of garden seeds. The soil, indeed, was not such as to promise much success to the planter; but it was the best that could be discovered.
The 25th of April was the eighth fair day our people had successively enjoyed; and there was reason to believe that such a circumstance was very uncommon in the place where they now lay, and at that season of the year. This favourable weather afforded them the opportunity of more speedily completing their wood and water, and of putting the ship into a condition for sea. On the evening of the 25th, it began to rain; and the weather was afterwards extremely variable, being, at times, in a high degree wet, cold, and stormy. Nothing, however, prevented Captain Cook from prosecuting, with his usual sagacity and diligence, his search into every part of Dusky Bay; and, as there are few places in New Zealand where necessary refreshments may be so plentifully obtained, as in this bay, he hath taken care to give such a description of it, and of the adjacent country, as may be of service to succeeding navigators. Although this country lies far remote from what is now the trading part of the world, yet, as he justly observes, we can by no means tell what use future ages may derive from the discoveries made in the present.
The various anchoring places are delineated on our commander's chart, and the most convenient of them he has particularly described. Not only about Dusky Bay, but through all the southern part of the western coast of Tavai-poenammo, the country is exceedingly mountainous. A prospect more rude and craggy is rarely to be met with; for, inland, there are only to be seen the summits of mountains of a tremendous height, and consisting of rocks that are totally barren and naked, excepting where they are covered with snow. But the land which borders on the sea-coast is thickly clothed with wood almost down to the water's edge; and this is the case with regard to all the adjoining islands. The trees are of various kinds, and are fit for almost every possible use. Excepting in the river Thames, Captain Cook had not found finer timber in all New Zealand; the most considerable species of which is the spruce tree; for that name he had given it, from the similarity of its foliage to the American spruce, though the wood is more ponderous, and bears a greater resemblance to the pitch pine. Many of these trees are so large, that they would be able to furnish mainmasts for fifty-gun ships. Amidst the variety of aromatic trees and shrubs which this part of New Zealand produced, there was none which bore fruit fit to be eaten. The country was not found so destitute of quadrupeds as was formerly imagined.
As Dusky Bay presented many advantages to our navigators, so it was attended with some disagreeable circumstances. There were great numbers of small black sandflies, which were troublesome to a degree that our commander had never experienced before. Another evil arose from the continual quantity of rain that occurred in the bay. This might, indeed, in part proceed from the season of the year: but it is probable that the country must at all times be subject to much wet weather, in consequence of the vast height and vicinity of the mountains. It was remarkable that the rain, though our people were perpetually exposed to it, was not productive of any evil consequences. On the contrary, such of the men as were sick and complaining when they entered the bay, recovered daily, and the whole crew soon became strong and vigorous. So happy a circumstance could only be attributed to the healthiness of the place, and the fresh provisions it afforded; among which the beer was a very material article.
The inhabitants of Dusky Bay are of the same race with the other natives of New Zealand, speak the same language, and adhere nearly to the same customs. Their mode of life appears to be a wandering one; and though they are few in number, no traces were remarked of their families being connected together In any close bonds of union or friendship.
While the Resolution lay in the bay, Mr. Wales made a variety of scientific observations relative to latitude and longitude, the variation of the compass, and the diversity of the tides.
When Captain Cook left Dusky Bay, he directed his course for Queen Charlotte's Sound, where he expected to find the Adventure. This was on the 11th of May, and nothing remarkable occurred till the 17th, when the wind at once flattened to a calm, the sky became suddenly obscured by dark dense clouds, and there was every prognostication of a tempest. Soon after, six waterspouts were seen, four of which rose and spent themselves between the ship and the land; the fifth was at a considerable distance, on the other side of the vessel; and the sixth, the progressive motion of which was not in a straight, but in a crooked line, passed within fifty yards of the stern of the Resolution, without producing any evil effect. As the captain had been informed that the firing of a gun would dissipate waterspouts, he was sorry that he had not tried the experiment. But, though he was near enough, and had a gun ready for the purpose, his mind was so deeply engaged in viewing these extraordinary meteors, that he forgot to give the necessary directions.
On the next day, the Resolution came within sight of Queen Charlotte's Sound, where Captain Cook had the satisfaction of discovering the Adventure; and both ships felt uncommon joy at thus meeting again after an absence of fourteen weeks. As the events which happened to Captain Furneaux, during the separation of the two vessels, do not fall within the immediate design of the present narrative, it may be sufficient to observe, that he had an opportunity of examining, with somewhat more accuracy than had hitherto been done, Van Dieman's Land, and his opinion was, that there are no straits between this land and New Holland, but a very deep bay. He met, likewise, with farther proofs, that the natives of New Zealand are eaters of human flesh.
The morning after Captain Cook's arrival in Queen Charlotte's Sound, he went himself, at daybreak, to look for scurvy-grass, celery, and other vegetables; and he had the good fortune to return with a boatload, in a very short space of time. Having found, that a sufficient quantity of these articles might be obtained for the crews of both the ships, he gave orders that they should be boiled with wheat and portable broth, every day for breakfast; and with pease and broth for dinner. Experience had taught him, that the vegetables now mentioned, when thus dressed, are extremely beneficial to seamen, in removing the various scorbutic complaints to which they are subject.
Our commander had entertained a desire of visiting Van Dieman's Land, in order to inform himself whether it made a part of New Holland. But as this point had been, in a great measure, cleared up by Captain Furneaux, he came to a resolution to continue his researches to the east, between the latitudes of 41° and 46°; and he directed accordingly, that the ships should be gotten ready for putting to sea as soon as possible. On the 20th, he sent on shore the only ewe and ram that remained of those which, with the intention of leaving them in this country, he had brought from the Cape of Good Hope. Soon after he visited several gardens, that by order of captain Furneaux had been made and planted with various articles; all of which were in such a flourishing state, that, if duly attended to, they promised to be of great utility to the natives. The next day, Captain Cook himself set some men to work to form a garden on Long Island, which he stocked with different seeds, and particularly with the roots of turnips, carrots, parsnips, and potatoes. These were the vegetables that would be of the most real use to the Indians, and of these it was easy to give them an idea, by comparing them with such roots as they themselves knew. On the 22nd, Captain Cook received the unpleasant intelligence, that the ewe and ram, which with so much care and trouble he had brought to this place, were both of them found dead. It was supposed that they had eaten some poisonous plant; and by this accident all the captain's hopes of stocking New Zealand with a breed of sheep were instantly blasted.
The intercourse which our great navigator had with the inhabitants of the country, during this his second visit to Queen Charlotte's Sound, was of a friendly nature. Two or three families took up their abode near the ships, and employed themselves daily in fishing, and in supplying the English with the fruits of their labour. No small advantage hence accrued to our people, who were by no means such expert fishers as the natives, nor were any of our methods of fishing equal to theirs. Thus, in almost every state of society, particular arts of life are carried to perfection; and there is something which the most polished nations may learn from the most barbarous.
On the 2nd of June, when the Resolution and Adventure were almost ready to put to sea, Captain Cook sent on shore, on the east side of the sound, two goats, a male and female; and Captain Furneaux left, near Cannibal Cove, a boar and two breeding sows. The gentlemen had little doubt but that the country would, in time, be stocked with these animals, provided they were not destroyed by the Indians before they became wild. Afterwards there would be no danger; and as the natives knew nothing of their being left behind, it was hoped that it might be some time before they would be discovered.
It is remarkable that, during Captain Cook's second visit to Charlotte Sound, he was not able to recollect the face of any one person whom he had seen there three years before. Nor did it once appear, that even a single Indian had the least knowledge of our commander, or of any of our people who had been with him in his last voyage. Hence he thought it highly probable, that the greatest part of the natives who inhabited this sound to the beginning of the year 1770, had either since been driven out of it, or had removed, of their own accord, to some other situation. Not one-third of the inhabitants were there now, that had been seen at that time. Their strong hold on the point of Motuara was deserted, and in every part of the sound many forsaken habitations were discovered. In the captain's opinion, there was not any reason to believe, that the place had ever been very populous. From comparing the two voyages together, it may be collected that the Indians of Eahei-nomauwe are in somewhat of a more improved state of society than those of Tavai-poenammo.
Part of the 4th of June was employed by Captain Cook in visiting a chief and a whole tribe of the natives, consisting of between ninety and a hundred persons, including men, women and children. After the captain had distributed some presents among these people, and shewn to the chief the gardens which had been made, he returned on board, and spent the remainder of the day in the celebration of his royal master's nativity. Captain Furneaux and all his officers were invited upon the occasion; and the seamen were enabled, by a double allowance, to partake of the general joy.
As some might think it an extraordinary step in our commander, to proceed in discoveries so far south as forty-six degrees of latitude in the very depth of winter, he has recorded his motives for this part of his conduct. Winter, he acknowledges, is by no means favourable for discoveries. Nevertheless, it appeared to him to be necessary that something should be done in that season, in order to lessen the work in which he was engaged; and lest he should not be able to finish the discovery of the southern part of the south Pacific Ocean in the ensuing summer. Besides, if he should discover any land in his route to the east, he would be ready to begin to explore it, as soon as ever the season should be favourable. Independently of all these considerations, he had little to fear; having two good ships well provided, and both the crews being healthy. Where then could he better employ his time? If he did nothing more, he was at least in hopes of being enabled to point out to posterity, that these seas may be navigated, and that it is practicable to pursue discoveries even in the depth of winter. Such was the ardour of our navigator for prosecuting the ends of his voyage, in circumstances which would have induced most men to act a more cautious part!
During Captain Cook's stay in the sound, he had observed, that the second visit to this country had not mended the morals of the natives of either sex. He had always looked upon the females of New Zealand as more chaste than the generality of Indian women. Whatever favours a few of them might have granted to the people in the Endeavour, such intercourse usually took place in a private manner, and did not appear to be encouraged by the men. But now the captain was told, that the male Indians were the chief promoters of this shameful traffic, and that, for a spikenail, or any other thing they valued, they would oblige the women to prostitute themselves, whether it were agreeable or contrary to their inclinations. At the same time no regard was paid to the privacy which decency required. The account of this fact must be read with concern by every wellwisher to the good order and happiness of society, even without adverting to considerations of a higher nature.
On the 7th of June, Captain Cook put to sea from Queen Charlotte's Sound, with the Adventure in company. I shall omit the nautical part of the route from New Zealand to Otaheite, which continued till the 15th of August; and shall only select such circumstances as are more immediately suitable to the design of the present narrative. It was found, on the 29th of July, that the crew of the Adventure were in a sickly state. Her cook was dead, and about twenty of her best men were rendered incapable of duty by the scurvy and flux. At this time, no more than three men were on the sick list on board the Resolution; and only one of these was attacked with the scurvy. Some others, however, began to discover the symptoms of it; and, accordingly, recourse was had to wort, marmalade of carrots, and the rob of lemons and oranges, with the usual success.
Captain Cook could not account for the prevalence of the scurvy being so much greater in the Adventure than in the Resolution, unless it was owing to the crew of the former being more scorbutic when they arrived in New Zealand than the crew of the latter, and to their eating few or no vegetables while they lay in Queen Charlotte's Sound. This arose partly from their want of knowing the right sorts, and partly from the dislike which seamen have to the introduction of a new diet. Their aversion to any unusual change of food is so great, that it can only be overcome by the steady and persevering example and authority of a commander. Many of Captain Cook's people, officers as well as common sailors, disliked the boiling of celery, scurvy-grass, and other greens with pease and wheat; and by some the provision, thus prepared, was refused to be eaten. But, as this had no effect on the captain's conduct, their prejudice gradually subsided: they began to like their diet as much as the rest of their companions; and, at length, there was hardly a man in the ship who did not attribute the freedom of the crew from the scurvy, to the beer and vegetables which had been made use of at New Zealand. Henceforward, whenever the seamen came to a place where vegetables could be obtained, our commander seldom found it necessary to order them to be gathered; and, if they were scarce, happy was the person who could lay hold on them first.
On the 1st of August, when the ships were in the latitude of 25° 1', and the longitude of 130° 6' west, they were nearly in the same situation with that which is assigned by Captain Carteret for Pitcairn's Island, discovered by him in 1767. For this island, therefore, our voyagers diligently looked; but saw nothing. According to the longitude in which he had placed it, Captain Cook must have passed it fifteen leagues to the west. But as this was uncertain, he did not think it prudent to lose any time in searching for it, as the sickly state of the Adventure's people required as speedy an arrival as possible at a place of refreshment. A sight of it, however, would have been of use in verifying or correcting, not only the longitude of Pitcairn's Island, but of the others discovered by Captain Carteret in that neighbourhood. It is a diminution of the value of that gentleman's voyage, that his longitude was not confirmed by astronomical observations, and that hence it was liable to errors, the correction of which was out of his power.
As Captain Cook had now gotten to the northward of Captain Carteret's tracks, he no longer entertained any hopes of discovering a continent. Islands were all that he could expect to find, until he returned again to the south. In this and his former voyage, he had crossed the ocean in the latitude of 40° and upwards, without meeting any thing which could, in the least, induce him to believe that he should attain the great object of his pursuit. Every circumstance concurred to convince him, that, between the meridian of America and New Zealand, there is no southern continent; and that there is no continent farther to the south, unless in a very high latitude. This, however; was a point too important to be left to opinions and conjectures. It was to be determined by facts; and the ascertainment of it was appointed, by our commander, for the employment of the ensuing summer.
It was the 6th of August before the ships had the advantage of the trade wind. This they got at southeast, being at that time in the latitude of 19° 36' south, and the longitude of 131° 32' west. As Captain Cook had obtained the south east trade wind, he directed his course to the west-north-west; not only with a view of keeping in with the strength of the wind, but also to get to the north of the islands discovered in his former voyage, that he might have a chance of meeting with any other islands which might lie in the way. It was in the track which had been pursued by M. de Bougainville that our commander now proceeded. He was sorry that he could not spare time to sail to the north of this track; but at present, on account of the sickly state of the Adventure's crew, the arriving at a place where refreshments could be procured was an object superior to that of discovery. To four of the islands which were passed by Captain Cook, he gave the names of Resolution Island, Doubtful Island, Furneaux Island, and Adventure Island. They are supposed to be the same that were seen by M. de Bougainville; and these with several others, which constitute a cluster of low and half-drowned isles, that gentleman distinguished by the appellation of the Dangerous Archipelago. The smoothness of the sea sufficiently convinced our navigators, that they were surrounded by them, and that it was highly necessary to proceed with the utmost caution, especially in the night.
Early in the morning, on the 15th of August, the ships came within sight of Osnaburg Island, or Maitea, which had been discovered by Captain Wallis. Soon after, Captain Cook acquainted Captain Furneaux, that it was his intention to put into Oaiti-piha Bay, near the south-east end of Otaheite, for the purpose of procuring what refreshments he could from that part of the island, before he went down to Matavai. At six to the evening the island was seen bearing west; and our people continued to advance towards it till midnight, when they brought to, till four o'clock in the morning; after which, they sailed in for the land with a fine breeze at east. At day-break, they found themselves within the distance of half a league from the reef; and, at the same time, the breeze began to fail them, and was at last succeeded by a calm. It now became necessary for the boats to be hoisted out, in order to tow off the ships; but all the efforts of our voyagers, to keep them from being carried near the reef, were insufficient for the purpose. As the calm continued, the situation of the vessels became still more dangerous. Captain Cook, however, entertained hopes of getting round the western point of the reef and into the bay. But, about two o'clock in the afternoon, when he came before an opening or break of the reef, through which he had flattered himself that he might get with the ships, he found, on sending to examine it, that there was not a sufficient depth of water. Nevertheless, this opening caused such an indraught of the tide of flood through it, as was very near proving fatal to the Resolution; for as soon as the vessels got into the stream, they were carried towards the reef with great impetuosity. The moment the captain perceived this, he ordered one of the warping machines, which was held in readiness, to be carried out with about four hundred fathoms of rope; but it did not produce the least effect: and our navigators had now in prospect the horrors of shipwreck. They were not more than two cables' length from the breakers; and, though it was the only probable method which was left of saving the ships, they could find no bottom to anchor. An anchor, however, they did drop; but before it took hold, and brought them up, the Resolution was in less than three fathom water and struck at every fall of the sea, which broke close under her stern in a dreadful surf, and threatened her crew every moment with destruction. Happily the Adventure brought up without striking. Presently, the Resolution's people carried out two kedge-anchors, with hawsers to each; and these found ground a little without the bower. By heaving upon them, and cutting away the bower anchor, the ship was gotten afloat, where Captain Cook and his men lay for some time in the greatest anxiety, expecting every minute that either the kedges would come home, or the hawsers be cut in two by the rocks. At length, the tide ceased to act in the same direction: upon which the captain ordered all the boats to try to tow off the vessel. Having found this to be practicable, the two kedges were hove up; and at that moment a light air came off from the land, by which the boats were so much assisted, that the Resolution soon got clear of all danger. Our commander then ordered all the boats to assist the Adventure; but before they reached her, she was under sail with the land breeze, and in a little time joined her companion, leaving behind her three anchors, her coasting cable, and two hawsers, which were never recovered. Thus were our voyagers once more safe at sea, after narrowly escaping being wrecked on the very island, at which, but a few days before, they had most ardently wished to arrive. It was a peculiarly happy circumstance, that the calm continued, after bringing the ships into so dangerous a state; for if the sea breeze, as is usually the ease, had set, in, the Resolution must inevitably have been lost, and probably the Adventure likewise. During the time in which the English were in this critical situation, a number of the natives were either on board or near the vessel in their canoes. Nevertheless, they seemed to be insensible of our people's danger, shewing not the least surprise, joy, or fear, when the ships were striking; and they went away a little before sunset, quite unconcerned. Though most of them knew Captain Cook again, and many inquired for Mr. Banks and others who had been with the captain before, it was remarkable that not one of them asked for Tupia.
On the 17th the Resolution and Adventure anchored in Oaiti-piha Bay, immediately upon which they were crowded with the inhabitants of the country, who brought with them cocoa-nuts, plantains, bananas, apples, yams, and other roots, which were exchanged for nails and beads. To some, who called themselves chiefs, our commander made presents of shirts, axes, and several articles besides, in return for which they promised to bring him hogs and fowls; a promise which they did not perform, and which, as might be judged from their conduct, they had never had the least intention of performing. In the afternoon of the same day, Captain Cook landed in company with Captain Furneaux, for the purpose of viewing the watering-place, and of sounding the disposition of the natives. The article of water, which was now much wanted on board, he found might conveniently he obtained, and the inhabitants behaved with great civility. Notwithstanding this civility, nothing was brought to market, the next day, but fruit and roots, though it was said that many hogs were seen about the houses in the neighbourhood. The cry was, that they belonged to Waheatoua, the earee de hi, or king; who had not yet appeared, nor indeed, any other chief of note. Among the Indians that came on board the Resolution, and no small number of whom did not scruple to call themselves earees, there was one of this sort, who had been entertained in the cabin most of the day, and to all of whose friends Captain Cook had made presents, as well as liberally to himself. At length, however, he was caught taking things which did not belong to him, and handing them out of the quarter gallery. Various complaints of the like nature being, at the same time, made against the natives who were on deck, our commander turned them all out of the ship. His cabin guest was very rapid in his retreat; and the captain was so exasperated at his behaviour, that after the earee had gotten to some distance from the Resolution, he fired two muskets over his head, by which he was so terrified that he quitted his canoe and took to the water. Captain Cook then sent a boat to take the canoe; but when the boat approached the shore, the people on land began to pelt her with stones. The captain, therefore, being in some pain for her safety, as she was unarmed, went himself in another boat to protect her, and ordered a great gun, loaded with ball, to be fired along the coast, which made all the Indians retire from the shore, and he was suffered to bring away two canoes without the least show of opposition. In a few hours peace was restored, and the canoes were returned to the first person who came for them.
It was not till the evening of this day, that any one inquired after Tupia, and then the inquiry was made by only two or three of the natives. When they learned the cause of his death, they were perfectly satisfied; nor did it appear to our commander that they would have felt a moment's uneasiness, if Tupia's decease had proceeded from any other cause than sickness. They were as little concerned about Aotourou, the man who had gone away with M. de Bougainville. But they were continually asking for Mr. Banks, and for several others who had accompanied Captain Cook in his former voyage.
Since that voyage, very considerable changes had happened in the country. Toutaha, the regent of the great peninsula of Otaheite, had been killed, in a battle which was fought between the two kingdoms about five months before the Resolution's arrival; and Otto was now the reigning prince. Tubourai Tamaide, and several more of the principal friends to the English, had fallen in this battle, together with a large number of the common people. A peace subsisted, at present, between the two grand divisions of the island.
On the 20th, one of the natives carried off a musket belonging to the guard onshore. Captain Cook, who was himself a witness of the transaction, sent out some of his people after him; but this would have been to very little purpose, if the thief had not been intercepted by several of his own countrymen, who pursued him voluntarily, knocked him down, and returned the musket to the English. This act of justice prevented our commander from being placed in a disagreeable situation. If the natives had not given their immediate assistance, it would scarcely have been in his power to have recovered the musket, by any gentle means whatever; and if he had been obliged to have recourse to other methods, he was sure of loosing more than ten times its value.
The fraud of one, who appeared as a chief, is, perhaps, not unworthy of notice. This man, in a visit to Captain Cook, presented him with a quantity of fruit; among which were a number of cocoa-nuts, that had already been exhausted of their liquor by our people, and afterwards thrown overboard. These the chief had picked up, and tied so artfully in bundles, that at first the deception was not perceived. When he was informed of it, without betraying the least emotion, and affecting a total ignorance of the matter, he opened two or three of the nuts himself, signified that he was satisfied of the fact, and then went on shore and sent off a quantity of plantains and bananas. The ingenuity and the impudence of fraud are not solely the production of polished society.
Captain Cook, on the 23rd, had an interview with Waheatoua, the result of which was that our navigators obtained this day as much pork as furnished a meal to the crews of both the vessels. In the captain's last voyage, Waheatoua, who was then little more than a boy, was called Tearee; but having succeeded to his father's authority, he had assumed his father's name.
The fruits that were procured at Oaiti-piha Bay contributed greatly to the recovery of the sick people belonging to the Adventure. Many of them, who had been so ill as to be incapable of moving without assistance, were, in the compass of a few days, so far recovered that they were able to walk about of themselves. When the Resolution entered the bay, she had but one scorbutic man on board. A marine, who had long been sick; and who died the second day after her arrival, of a complication of disorders, had not the least mixture of the scurvy.
On the 24th, the ships put to sea, and arrived the next evening in Matavia Bay. Before they could come to an anchor, the decks were crowded with the natives, many of whom Captain Cook knew, and by most of whom he was well remembered. Among a large multitude of people, who were collected together upon the shore, was Otoo, the king of the island. Our commander paid him a visit on the following day, at Oparree, the place of his residence; and found him to be a fine, personable, well-made man, six feet high, and about thirty years of age. The qualities of his mind were not correspondent to his external appearance: for when Captain Cook endeavoured to obtain from him the promise of a visit on board, he acknowledged that he was afraid of the guns, and, indeed, manifested in all his actions that he was a prince of a timorous disposition.
Upon the captain's return from Oparree, he found the tents, and the astronomer's observatories, set up, on the same spot from which the transit of Venus had been observed in 1769. The sick, being twenty in number from the Adventure, and one from the Resolution, all of whom were ill of the scurvy, he ordered to be landed; and he appointed a guard of marines on shore, under the command of Lieutenant Edgcumbe.
On the 27th, Otoo was prevailed upon, with some degree of reluctance, to pay our commander a visit. He came attended with a numerous train, and brought with him fruits, a hog, two large fish, and a quantity of cloth: for which he and all his retinue were gratified with suitable presents. When Captain Cook conveyed his guests to land, he was met by a venerable lady, the mother of the late Toutaha, who seized him by both hands, and burst into a flood of tears, saying, _Toutaha tiyo no toutee matty Toutaha_; that is, 'Toutaha, your friend, or the friend of Cook, is dead.' He was so much affected with her behaviour, that it would have been impossible for him to have refrained from mingling his tears with hers, had not Otoo, who was displeased with the interview, taken him from her. It was with difficulty that the captain could obtain permission to see her again, when he gave her an axe and some other articles. Captain Furneaux, at this time presented the king with two fine goats, which, if no accident befell them, might be expected to multiply.
Several days had passed in a friendly intercourse with the natives, and in the procuring provisions, when, in the evening of the 30th, the gentlemen on board the Resolution were alarmed with the cry of murder, and with a great noise on shore, near the bottom of the bay, and at a distance from the English encampment. Upon this, Captain Cook, who suspected that some of his own men were concerned in the affair, immediately dispatched an armed boat, to know the cause of the disturbance, and to bring off such of his people as should be found in the place. He sent also, to the Adventure, and to the post on shore, to learn who were missing: for none but those who were upon duty were absent from the Resolution. The boats speedily returned with three marines and a seaman. Some others, likewise, were taken, belonging to the Adventure; and all of them being put under confinement, our commander, the next morning, ordered them to be punished according to their deserts. He did not find that any mischief had been done, and the men would confess nothing. Some liberties which they had taken with the women had probably given occasion to the disturbance. To whatever cause it was owing, the natives were so much alarmed, that they fled from their habitations in the dead of night, and the alarm was spread many miles along the coast. In the morning, when Captain Cook went to visit Otoo, by appointment, he found he had removed, or rather fled, to a great distance from the usual place of his abode. After arriving where he was, it was some hours before the captain could be admitted to the sight of him; and then he complained of the riot of the preceding evening.
The sick being nearly recovered, the water completed, and the necessary repairs of the ships finished, Captain Cook determined to put to sea without delay. Accordingly, on the 1st of September, he ordered every thing to be removed from the shore, and the vessels to be unmoored, in which employment his people were engaged the greater part of the day. In the afternoon of the same day, Lieutenant Pickersgill returned from Attahourou, to which place he had been sent by the captain, for the purpose of procuring some hogs that had been promised. In this expedition, the lieutenant had seen the celebrated Oberea, who has been so much the object of poetical fancy. Her situation was very humble compared with what it had formerly been. She was not only altered much for the worse in her person, but appeared to be poor, and of little or no consequence or authority in the island. In the evening, a favourable wind having sprung up, our commander put to sea; on which occasion he was obliged to dismiss his Otaheite friends sooner than they wished to depart; but well satisfied with his kind and liberal treatment.
From Matavai Bay, Captain Cook directed his course for the island of Huaheine, where he intended to touch. This island he reached the next day, and, early in the morning of the 3rd of September, made sail for the harbour of Owharre, in which he soon came to an anchor. The Adventure, not happening to turn into the harbour with equal facility, got ashore on the north side of the channel; but, by the timely assistance which Captain Cook had previously provided, in case such an accident should occur, she was gotten off again, without receiving any damage. As soon as both the ships were in safety, our commander; together with Captain Furneaux, landed upon the island, and was received by the natives with the utmost cordiality. A trade immediately commenced; so that our navigators had a fair prospect of being plentifully supplied with fresh pork and fowls, which, to people in their situation, was a very desirable circumstance. On, the 4th, Lieutenant Pickersgill sailed with the cutter, on a trading party, toward the south end of the isle. Another trading party was also sent on shore near the ships, which party Captain Cook attended himself, to see that the business was properly conducted at the first setting out, this being a point of no small importance. Every thing being settled to his mind, he went, accompanied by Captain Furneaux, and Mr. Forster, to pay a visit to his old friend Oree, the chief of the island. This visit was preceded by many preparatory ceremonies. Among other things the chief sent to our commander the inscription engraved on a small piece of pewter, which he had left with him in July, 1761. It was in the bag that Captain Cook had made for it, together with a piece of counterfeit English coin, and a few beads, which had been put in at the same time; whence it was evident what particular care had been taken of the whole. After the previous ceremonies had been discharged, the captain wanted to go to the king, but he was informed that the king would come to him. Accordingly, Oree went up to our commander, and fell on his neck, and embraced him; nor was it a ceremonious embrace, for the tears which trickled down the venerable old man's cheeks sufficiently bespoke the language of his heart. The presents, which Captain Cook made to the chief on this occasion, consisted of the most valuable articles he had; for he regarded him as a father. Oree, in return, gave the captain a hog, and a quantity of cloth, promising that all the wants of the English should be supplied; and it was a promise to which he faithfully adhered. Indeed, he carried his kindness to Captain Cook so far, as not to fail sending him every day, for his table, a plentiful supply of the very best of ready-dressed fruits and roots.
Hitherto, all things had gone on in the most agreeable manner; but on Monday, the 6th, several circumstances occurred, which rendered it an unpleasant and troublesome day. When our commander went to the trading-place, he was informed that one of the inhabitants had behaved with remarkable insolence. The man was completely equipped in the war habit, had a club in each hand, and seemed bent upon mischief. Captain Cook took, therefore, the clubs from him, broke them before his eyes, and with some difficulty compelled him to retire. About the same time, Mr. Sparrman, who had imprudently gone out alone to botanize, was assaulted by two men, who stripped him of every thing which he had about him, excepting his trowsers, and struck him again and again with his own hanger, though happily without doing him any harm. When they had accomplished their purpose, they made off; after which another of the natives brought a piece of cloth to cover him, and conducted him to the trading place, where the inhabitants, in a large number, were assembled. The instant that Mr. Sparrman appeared in the condition now described, they all fled with the utmost precipitation. Captain Cook, having recalled a few of the Indians, and convinced them that he should take no step to injure those who were innocent, went to Oree to complain of the outrage. When the chief had heard the whole affair related, he wept aloud, and many other of the inhabitants did the same. After the first transports of his grief had subsided, he began to expostulate with his people, telling them (for so his language was understood by the English) how well Captain Cook had treated them both in this and his former voyage, and how base it was in them to commit such actions. He then took a minute account of the things of which Mr. Sparrman had been robbed, and, after having promised to use his utmost endeavours for the recovery of them, desired to go into the captain's boat. At this, the natives, apprehensive doubtless for the safety of their prince, expressed the utmost alarm, and used every argument to dissuade him from so rash a measure. All their remonstrances, however, were in vain. He hastened into the boat; and as soon as they saw that their beloved chief was wholly in our commander's power, they set up a great outcry. Indeed, their grief was inexpressible; they prayed, entreated nay, attempted to pull him out of the boat; and every face was bedewed with tears. Even Captain Cook himself was so moved by their distress, that he united his entreaties with theirs, but all to no purpose. Oree insisted upon the captain's coming into the boat, which was no sooner done, than he ordered it to be put off. His sister was the only person among the Indians who behaved with a becoming magnanimity on this occasion; for, with a spirit equal to that of her royal brother, she alone did not oppose his going. It was his design, in coming into the boat of the English, to proceed with them in search of the robbers. Accordingly, he went with Captain Cook, as far as it was convenient, by water, when they landed, entered the country, and travelled same miles inland; in doing which the chief led the way, and inquired after the criminals of every person whom he saw. In this search he would have gone to the very extremity of the island, if our commander, who did not think the object worthy of so laborious a pursuit, had not refused to proceed any farther. Besides, as he intended to sail the next morning, and all manner of trade was stopped in consequence of the alarm of the natives, it became the more necessary for him to return, that he might restore things to their former state. It was with great reluctance that Ores was prevailed upon to discontinue the search, and to content himself with sending, at Captain Cook's request, some of his people for the things which had been carried off. When he and the captain had gotten back to the boat, they found there the chief's sister, and several other persons, who had travelled by land to the place. The English gentlemen immediately stepped into their boat, in order to return on board, without so much as asking Oree to accompany them; notwithstanding which, he insisted upon doing it; nor could the opposition and entreaties of those who were about him induce him to desist from his purpose. His sister followed his example, uninfluenced, on this occasion, by the supplications and tears of her daughter. Captain Cook amply rewarded the chief and his sister for the confidence they had placed in him; and, after dinner, conveyed them both on shore, where some hundreds of people waited to receive them, many of whom embraced Oree with tears of joy. All was now peace and gladness: the inhabitants crowded in from every part, with such a plentiful supply of hogs, fowls, and vegetable productions, that the English presently filled two boats; and the chief himself presented the captain with a large hog, and a quantity of fruit. Mr. Sparrman's hanger the only thing of value which he had lost, was brought back, together with part of his coat; and our navigators were told, that the remaining articles should be restored the next day. Some things which had been stolen from a party of officers, who had gone out a shooting, were returned in like manner.
The transactions of this day have been the more particularly related, as they shew the high opinion which the chief had formed of our commander, and the unreserved confidence that he placed in his integrity and honour. Oree had entered into a solemn friendship with Captain Cook, according to all the forms which were customary in the country; and he seemed to think, that this friendship could not be broken by the act of any other persons. It is justly observed by the captain, that another chief may never be found, who, under similar circumstances, will act in the same manner. Oree, indeed, had nothing to fear: for it was not our commander's intention to hurt a hair of his head, or to detain him a moment longer than was agreeable to his own desire. But of this how could he and his people be assured? They were not ignorant, that when he was once in Captain Cook's power, the whole force of the island would not be sufficient to recover him, and that they must have complied with any demands, however great, for his ransom. The apprehensions, therefore, of the inhabitants, for their chief's and their own safety, had a reasonable foundation.
Early on the 7th, while the ships were unmooring, the captain went to pay his farewell visit to Oree, and took with him such presents as had not only a fancied value, but a real utility. He left, also, with the chief the inscription plate, that had been before in his possession, and another small copper-plate, on which were engraved these words: 'Anchored here, his Britannic Majesty's ships, Resolution and Adventure, September, 1773.' These plates, together with some medals, were put up in a bag; of which Oree promised to take care, and to produce them to the first ship or ships that should arrive at the island. Having, in return, given a hog to Captain Cook, and loaded his boat with fruit, they took leave of each other, when the good old chief embraced our commander with tears in his eyes. Nothing was mentioned, at this interview, concerning the remainder of Mr. Sparrman's property. As it was early in the morning, the captain judged that it had not been brought in, and he was not willing to speak of it to Oree, lest he should give him pain about things which there had not been time to recover. The robbers having soon afterward been taken, Oree came on board again, to request that our commander would go on shore, either to punish them, or to be present at their punishment; but this not being convenient to him, he left them to the correction of their own chief. It was from the island of Huaheine that Captain Furneaux received into his ship a young man named Omai, a native of Ulietea, of whom so much hath since been known and written. This choice Captain Cook at first disapproved; as thinking that the youth was not a proper sample of the inhabitants of the Society Islands; being inferior to many of them in birth and acquired rank, and not having any peculiar advantage in point of shape, figure, or complexion. The captain afterward found reason to be better satisfied with Omai's having accompanied our navigators, to England.
During the short stay of the vessels at Huaheine, our people were very successful in obtaining supplies of provisions. No less than three hundred hogs, besides fowls and fruit, were procured; and had the ships continued longer at the place, the quantity might have been greatly increased. Such was the fertility of this small island, that none of these articles of refreshment were seemingly diminished, but appeared to be as plentiful as ever.
From Huaheine our navigators sailed for Ulietea; where, trade was carried on in the usual manner, and a most friendly intercourse renewed between Captain Cook and Oree, the chief of the island. Here Tupia was inquired after with particular eagerness, and the inquirers were perfectly satisfied with the account which was given of the occasion of that Indian's decease.
On the morning of the 15th, the English were surprised at finding that none of the inhabitants of Ulietea came off to the ships, as had hitherto been customary. As two men belonging to the Adventure had stayed on shore all night, contrary to orders, Captain Cook's first conjectures were, that the natives had stripped them, and were afraid of the revenge which would be taken of the insult. This, however, was not the case. The men had been treated with great civility, and could assign no cause for the precipitate flight of the Indians. All that the captain could learn was, that several were killed and others wounded, by the guns of the English This information alarmed him for the safety of some of our people, who had been sent out in two boats to the island of Otaha. He determined, therefore, it possible, to see the chief himself. When he came up to him, Oree threw his arms around our commander's neck, and burst into tears; in which he was accompanied by all the women, and some of the men; so that the lamentations became general. Astonishment alone kept Captain Cook from joining in their grief. At last, the whole which he could collect from his inquiries was, that the natives had been alarmed on account of the absence of the English boats, and imagined that the captain, upon the supposition of the desertion of his men, would use violent means for the recovery of his loss. When the matter was explained, it was acknowledged that not a single inhabitant, or a single Englishman, had been hurt. This groundless consternation displayed in a strong light the timorous disposition of the people of the Society islands.
Our navigators were as successful in procuring provisions at Ulietea as they had been at Huaheine. Captain Cook judged that the number of hogs obtained amounted to four hundred or upwards: many of them, indeed, were only roasters, while others exceeded a hundred pounds in weight; but the general run was from forty to sixty. A larger quantity was offered than the ships could contain; so that our countrymen were enabled to proceed on their voyage with no small degree of comfort and advantage.
Our commander, by his second visit to the Society islands, gained a farther knowledge of their general state, and of the customs of the inhabitants. It appeared, that a Spanish ship had been lately at Otaheite, and the natives complained, that a disease had been communicated to them by the people of this vessel which according to their account affected the head, the throat, and the stomach, and at length ended in death. With regard to a certain disorder, the effects of which have so fatally been felt in the latter ages of the world, Captain Cook's inquiries could not absolutely determine whether it was known to the islanders before they were visited by the Europeans. If it was of recent origin, the introduction of it was, without a dissentient voice, ascribed to the voyage of M. de Bougainville.
One thing which our commander was solicitous to ascertain, was, whether human sacrifices constituted a part of the religious customs of these people, The man of whom he had made his inquiries, and several other natives took some pains to explain the matter; but, from our people's ignorance of the language of the country, their explication could not be understood. Captain Cook afterwards learned from Omai that the inhabitants of the Society islands offer human sacrifices to the Supreme Being. What relates to funeral ceremonies excepted, all the knowledge he could obtain concerning their religion was very imperfect and defective.
The captain had an opportunity, in this voyage of rectifying the great injustice which had been done to the women of Otaheite and the neighbouring isles. They had been represented as ready, without exception to grant the last favour to any man who would come up to their price: but our commander found that this was by no means the case. The favours both of the married women and of the unmarried, of the better sort, were as difficult to be obtained in the Society islands as in any other country whatever. Even with respect to the unmarried females of the lower class, the charge was not indiscriminately true. There were many of these who would not admit of indecent familiarities. The setting this subject in a proper light must be considered as one of the agreeable effects of Captain Cook's second voyage. Every enlightened mind will rejoice at what conduces to the honour of human nature in general, and of the female sex in particular. Chastity is so eminently the glory of that sex, and, indeed, is so essentially connected with the good order of society, that it must be a satisfaction to reflect, that there is no country, however ignorant or barbarous, in which this virtue is not regarded as an object of moral obligation.
This voyage enabled our commander to gain some farther knowledge concerning the geography of the Society isles; and he found it highly probable, that Otaheite is of greater extent than he had computed it in his former estimation. The astronomers did not neglect to set up their observatories, and to make observations suited to their purpose.
On the 17th of September, Captain Cook sailed from Ulietea, directing his course to the west, with an inclination to the south. Land was discovered on the 23rd of the month, to which he gave the name of Harvey's Island. On the 1st of October, he reached the island of Middleburg. While he was looking about for a landing place, two canoes, each of them conducted by two or three men, came boldly alongside the ship, and some of the people entered it without hesitation. This mark of confidence inspired our commander with so good an opinion of the inhabitants, that he determined, if possible, to pay them a visit, which he did the next day. Scarcely had the vessels gotten to an anchor, before they were surrounded by a great number of canoes, full of the natives, who brought with them cloth, and various curiosities, which they exchanged for nails, and such other articles as were adapted to their fancy. Among those who came on board, was a chief, named Tioony, whose friendship Captain Cook immediately gained by proper presents, consisting principally of a hatchet and some spike-nails. A party of our navigators, with the captain at the head of them having embarked in two boats, proceeded to the shore, where they found an immense crowd of people, who welcomed them to the island with loud acclamations. There was not so much as a stick, or any other weapon, in the hands of a single native, so pacific were their dispositions and intentions. They seemed to be more desirous of giving than receiving; and many of them, who could not approach near to the boats, threw into them, over the heads of others, whole bales of cloth, and then retired, without either asking or waiting for anything in return. The whole day was spent by our navigators in the most agreeable manner. When they returned on board in the evening, every one expressed how much he was delighted with the country, and the very obliging behaviour of the inhabitants, who seemed to vie with each other in their endeavours to give pleasure to our people. All this conduct appeared to be the result of the most pure good nature, perhaps without being accompanied with much sentiment or feeling; for when Captain Cook signified to the chief his intention of quitting the island, he did not seem to be in the least moved. Among other articles presented by the captain to Tioony, he left him an assortment of garden seeds, which, if properly used, might be of great future benefit to the country.
From Middleburg, the ships sailed down to Amsterdam, the natives of which island were equally ready with those of the former place to maintain a friendly intercourse with the English. Like the people of Middleburg, they brought nothing with them but cloth, matting, and such other articles as could be of little service; and for these our seamen were so simple as to barter away their clothes. To put a stop, therefore to so injurious a traffic, and to obtain the necessary refreshments, the captain gave orders, that no sort of curiosities should be purchased by any person whatever. This injunction produced the desired effect. When the inhabitants saw that the English would deal with them for nothing but eatables, they brought off bananas and cocoa-nuts in abundance, together with some fowls and pigs; all of which they exchanged for small nails and pieces of cloth. Even a few old rags were sufficient for the purchase of a pig or a fowl.
The method of carrying on trade being settled, and proper officers having been appointed to prevent disputes, our commander's next object was to obtain as complete a knowledge as possible of the island of Amsterdam. In this he was much facilitated by a friendship which he had formed with Attago, one of the chiefs of the country. Captain Cook was struck with admiration, when he surveyed the beauty and cultivation of the island. He thought himself transported into the most fertile plains of Europe. There was not an inch of waste ground. The roads occupied no larger a space than was absolutely necessary, and the fences did not take up above four inches each. Even such a small portion of ground was not wholly lost; for many of the fences themselves contained useful trees or plants. The scene was every where the same; and nature, assisted by a little art, no where assumes a more splendid appearance than in this island.
Friendly as were the natives of Amsterdam, they were not entirely free from the thievish disposition which had so often been remarked in the islanders of the Southern Ocean. The instances, however, of this kind, which occurred, were not of such a nature as to produce any extraordinary degree of trouble, or to involve our people in a quarrel with the inhabitants.
Captain Cook's introduction to the king of the island afforded a scene somewhat remarkable. His majesty was seated with so much sullen and stupid gravity, that the captain took him for an idiot, whom the Indians, from some superstitious reasons, were ready to worship. When our commander saluted and spoke to him, he neither answered, nor took the least notice of him; nor did he alter a single feature of his countenance. Even the presents which were made to him could not induce him to resign a bit of his gravity, or to speak one word, or to turn his head either to the right hand or to the left. As he was in the prime of life, it was possible that a false sense of dignity might engage him to assume so solemn a stupidity of appearance. In the history of mankind, instances might probably be found which would confirm this supposition.
It is observable, that the two islands of Middleburg and Amsterdam are guarded from the sea by a reef of coral rocks, which extend out from the shore about one hundred fathoms. On this reef the force of the sea is spent before it reaches the land. The same, indeed, is, to a great measure, the situation of all the tropical isles which our commander had seen in that part of the globe; and hence arises an evidence of the wisdom and goodness of Providence; as by such a provision, nature has effectually secured them from the encroachments of the sea, though many of them are mere points, when compared with the vast ocean by which they are surrounded.
In Amsterdam, Mr. Forster not only found the same plants that are at Otaheite and the neighbouring islands, but several others, which are not to be met with in those places. Captain Cook took care, by a proper assortment of garden-seeds and pulse, to increase the vegetable stock of the inhabitants.
Hogs and fowls were the only domestic animals that were seen in these islands. The former are of the same sort with those which have been met with in other parts of the Southern Ocean; but the latter are far superior, being as large as any in Europe, and equal, if not preferable, with respect to the goodness of their flesh.
Both men and women are of a common size with Europeans. Their colour is that of a lightish copper, and with a greater uniformity than occurs among the natives of Otaheite and the Society Isles. Some of the English gentlemen were of opinion, that the inhabitants of Middleburg and Amsterdam were a much handsomer race; while others with whom Captain Cook concurred, maintained a contrary sentiment. However this may be, their shape is good, their features regular, and they are active, brisk, and lively. The women, in particular, are the merriest creatures our commander had ever met with: and, provided any person seemed pleased with them, they would keep chattering by his side without the least invitation, or considering whether they were understood. They appeared in general to be modest, though there were several amongst them of a different character. As there were yet on board some complaints of a certain disorder, the captain took all possible care to prevent its communication. Our navigators were frequently entertained by the women with songs, and this in a manner which was by no means disagreeable. They had a method of keeping time by snapping their fingers. Their music was harmonious as well as their voices, and there was a considerable degree of compass in their notes.
A singular custom was found to prevail in these islands. The greater part of the people were observed to have lost one or both of their little fingers; and this was not peculiar to rank, age, or sex; nor was the amputation restricted to any specific period of life. Our navigators endeavoured in vain to discover the reason of so extraordinary a practice.
A very extensive knowledge of the language of Middleburg and Amsterdam could not be obtained during the short stay which was made there by the English. However, the more they inquired into it, the more they found that it was, in general, the same with that which is spoken at Otaheite and the Society isles. The difference is not greater than what frequently occurs betwixt the most northern and western parts of England.
On the 7th of October, Captain Cook proceeded on his voyage. His intention was to sail directly to Queen Charlotte's Sound, in New Zealand, for the purpose of taking in wood and water, after which he was to pursue his discoveries to the south and the east. The day after he quitted Amsterdam, he passed the island of Pilstart; an island which had been discovered by Tasman.
On the 21st, he made the land of New Zealand, at the distance of eight or ten leagues from Table Cape. As our commander was very desirous of leaving in the country such an assortment of animals and vegetables as might greatly contribute to the future benefit of the inhabitants, one of the first things which he did was to give to a chief, who had come off in a canoe, two boars, two sows, four hens, and two cocks, together with a quantity of seeds, The seeds were of the most useful kind; such as wheat, french and kidney beans, pease, cabbage, turnips, onions, carrots, parsnips, and yams. The man to whom these several articles were presented, though he was much more enraptured with a spike-nail half the length of his arm, promised, however, to take care of them, and in particular, not to kill any of the animals. If he adhered to his promise, they would be sufficient, in a due course of time, to stock the whole island.
It was the 3rd of November before Captain Cook brought the Resolution into Ship Cove, in Queen Charlotte's Sound. He had been beating about the island from the 21st of October, during which time his vessel was exposed to a variety of tempestuous weather. In one instance he had been driven off the land by a furious storm, which lasted two days, and which would have been dangerous in the highest degree, had it not fortunately happened that it was fair overhead, and that there was no reason to be apprehensive of a lee-shore. In the course of the bad weather which succeeded this storm, the Adventure was separated from the Resolution, and was never seen or heard of through the whole remainder of the voyage.
The first object of our commander's attention, after his arrival in Queen Charlotte's Sound, was to provide for the repair of his ship, which had suffered in various respects, and especially in her sails and rigging. Another matter which called for his notice was the state of the bread belonging to the vessel, and he had the mortification of finding, that a large quantity of it was damaged. To repair this loss in the best manner he was able, he ordered all the casks to be opened, the bread to be picked, and such parcels of it to be baked, in the copper oven, as could by that means be recovered. Notwithstanding this care, four thousand two hundred and ninety-two pounds were found totally unfit for use; and about three thousand pounds more could only be eaten by people in the situation of our navigators.
Captain Cook was early in his inquiries concerning the animals which had been left at New Zealand, in the former part of his voyage. He saw the youngest of the two sows that Captain Furneaux had put on shore in Cannibal Cove. She was in good condition, and very tame. The boar and other sow, if our commander was rightly informed, were taken away and separated, but not killed. He was told that the two goats, which he had landed up the Sound, had been destroyed by a rascally native of the name of Goubiah; so that the captain had the grief of discovering that all his benevolent endeavours to stock the country with useful animals were likely to be frustrated by the very people whom he was anxious to serve. The gardens had met with a better fate. Every thing in them, excepting potatoes, the inhabitants had left entirely to nature, who had so well performed her part, that most of the articles were in a flourishing condition.
Notwithstanding the inattention and folly of the New Zealanders, Captain Cook still continued his zeal for their benefit. To the inhabitants who resided at the Cove, he gave a boar, a young sow, two cocks, and two hens, which had been brought from the Society islands. At the bottom of the West Bay, he ordered to be landed without the knowledge of the Indians, four hogs, being three sows and one boar, together with cocks and two hens. They were carried a little way into the woods, and as much food was left them as would serve them for ten or twelve days; which was done to prevent their coming down to the shore in search of sustenance, and by that means being discovered by the natives. The captain was desirous of replacing the two goats which Goubiah was understood to have killed, by leaving behind him the only two that yet remained in his possession. But he had the misfortune, soon after his arrival at Queen Charlotte's Sound to lose the ram; and this in a manner for which it was not easy to assign the cause. Whether it was owing to any thing he had eaten, or to his being stung with nettles, which were very plentiful in the place, he was seized with fits that bordered upon madness. In one of these fits, he was supposed to have run into the sea, and to have been drowned: and thus every method, which our commander had taken to stock the country with sheep and goats, proved ineffectual. He hoped to be more successful with respect to the boars and sows and the cocks and hens, which he left in the island.
While the boatswain, one day, and a party of men, were employed in cutting broom, some of them stole several things from a private hut of the natives, in which was deposited most of the treasures they had received from the English as well as property of their own. Complaint being made by the Indians to Captain Cook, and a particular man of the boatswain's party having been pointed out to the captain, as the person who had committed the theft, he ordered him to be punished in their presence. With this they went away seemingly satisfied, although they did not recover any of the articles which they had lost. It was always a maxim with our commander, to punish the least crimes which any of his people were guilty of with regard to uncivilized nations. Their robbing us with impunity he by no means considered as a reason for our treating them in the same manner. Addicted as the New Zealanders were, in a certain degree, to stealing, a disposition which must have been very much increased by the novelty and allurement of the objects presented to their view; they had, nevertheless, when injured themselves, such a sense of justice as to apply to Captain Cook for redress. The best method, in his opinion, of preserving a good understanding with the inhabitants of countries in this state of society, is, first, to convince them of the superiority we have over them in consequence of our fire arms, and then to be always upon our guard. Such a conduct, united with strict honesty and gentle treatment, will convince them, that it is their interest not to disturb us, and prevent them from forming any general plan of attack.
In this second visit of our navigators to New Zealand, they met with indubitable evidence that the natives were eaters of human flesh. The proofs of this fact had a most powerful influence on the mind of Oedidee, a youth of Bolabola, whom Captain Cook had brought in the Resolution from Ulietea. He was so affected, that he became perfectly motionless, and exhibited such a picture of horror, that it would have been impossible for art to describe that passion with half the force with which it appeared in his countenance. When he was roused from this state by some of the English, he burst into tears; continued to weep and scold by turns; told the New Zealanders that they were vile men; and assured them, that he would not be any longer their friend. He would not so much as permit them to come near him; and he refused to accept or even to touch, the knife by which some human flesh had been cut off. Such was Oedidee's indignation against the abominable custom; and our commander has justly remarked, that it was an indignation worthy to be imitated by every rational being. The conduct of this young man, upon the present occasion, strongly points out the difference which had taken place, in the progress of civilization, between the inhabitants of the Society islands and those of New Zealand. It was our commander's firm opinion, that the only human flesh which was eaten by these people was that of their enemies, who had been slain in battle.
During the stay of our voyagers in Queen Charlotte's Sound, they were plentifully supplied with fish, procured from the natives at a very easy rate; and, besides the vegetables afforded by their own gardens, they every where found plenty of scurvy-grass and celery. These Captain Cook ordered to be dressed every day for all his hands. By the attention which he paid to his men in the article of provisions, they had for three months lived principally on a fresh diet, and, at this time, there was not a sick or corbutic person on board.
The morning before the captain sailed, he wrote a memorandum, containing such information as he thought necessary for Captain Furneaux, in case he should put into the sound. This memorandum was buried in a bottle under the root of a tree in the garden; and in such a manner, that it could not avoid being discovered, if either Captain Furneaux, or any other European, should chance to arrive at the cove.
Our commander did not leave New Zealand without making such remarks on the coast between Cape Teerawhitte and Cape Palliser as may be of service to future navigators. It being now the unanimous opinion that the Adventure was no where upon the island, Captain Cook gave up all expectations of seeing her any more during the voyage. This circumstance, however, did not discourage him from fully exploring the southern parts of the Pacific ocean, in the doing of which he intended to employ the whole of the ensuing season. When he quitted the coast, he had the satisfaction to find that not a man of the crew was dejected, or thought that the dangers, they had yet to go through, were to the least augmented by their being alone. Such was the confidence they placed in their commander, that they were as ready to proceed cheerfully to the south, or wherever he might lead them, as if the Adventure, or even a larger number of ships had been in company.
On the 26th of November, Captain Cook sailed from New Zealand in search of a continent, and steered to the south, inclining to the east. Some days after this, our navigators reckoned themselves to be antipodes to their friends in London, and consequently were at as great a distance from them as possible. The first ice island was seen on the 12th of December, farther south than the first ice which had been met with after leaving the Cape of Good Hope in the preceding year. In the progress of the voyage, ice islands continually occurred, and the navigation became more and more difficult and dangerous. When our people were in the latitude of 67° 5' south, they all at once got within such a cluster of these islands, together with a large quantity of loose pieces, that to keep clear of them was a matter of the utmost difficulty. On the 22nd of the month, the Resolution was in the highest latitude she had yet reached; and circumstances now became so unfavourable, that our commander thought of returning more to the north. Here there was no probability of finding any land, or a possibility of getting farther south. To have proceeded, therefore, to the east in this latitude, must have been improper, not only on account of the ice, but because a vast space of sea to the north must have been left unexplored, in which there might lie a large tract of country. It was only by visiting those parts, that it could be determined whether such a supposition was well founded. As our navigators advanced to the north-east on the 24th, the ice islands increased so fast upon them, that, at noon, they could see nearly a hundred around them, besides an immense number of small pieces. In this situation they spent Christmas-day, much in the same manner as they had done in the former year. Happily our people had continual day-light, and clear weather for had it been as foggy as it was on some preceding days, nothing less than a miracle could have saved them from being dashed to pieces.
While the Resolution was in the high latitudes many of her company were attacked with a slight fever, occasioned by colds. The disorder, however, yielded to the simplest remedies, and was generally removed in a few days. On the 5th of January, 1774, the ship not being then in much more than fifty degrees of latitude, there were only one or two persons on the sick list.
After Captain Cook, agreeably to his late resolution, had traversed a large extent of ocean, without discovering land, he again directed his course to the southward. By the 30th of the month, through obstructions and difficulties, which, from their similar nature to those already mentioned, it would be tedious to repeat, he reached to the seventy-first degree of latitude. Thus far had he gone: but to have proceeded farther would have been the height of folly and madness. It would have been exposing himself, his men, and his ship to the utmost danger, and perhaps to destruction, without the least prospect of advantage. The captain was of opinion, as indeed were most of the gentlemen on board, that the ice now in sight extended quite to the pole, or might join to some land, to which it might be fixed from the earliest time. If, however, there be such land, it can afford no better retreat for birds, or any other animals, than the ice itself, with which it must be wholly covered. Though our commander had not only the ambition of going farther than any one had done before, but of proceeding as far as it was possible for man to go, he was the less dissatisfied with the interruption he now met with, as it shortened the dangers and hardships inseparable from the navigation of the southern polar regions. In fact he was impelled by inevitable necessity to tack, and stand back to the north.
The determination which Captain Cook now formed was to spend the ensuing winter within the tropic, if he met with no employment before he came there. He was well satisfied, that no continent was to be found in this ocean, but what must lie so far to the south, as to be wholly inaccessible on account of ice. If there existed a continent in the southern Atlantic Ocean, he was sensible that he could not explore it, without having the whole summer before them. Upon a supposition, on the other hand, that there is no land there he might undoubtedly have reached the Cape of Good Hope by April. In that case, he would have put an end to the finding of a continent; which was indeed the first object of the voyage. But this could not satisfy the extensive and magnanimous mind of our commander. He had a good ship, expressly sent out on discoveries, a healthy crew, and was not in want either of stores or of provisions. In such circumstances, to have quitted this Southern Pacific Ocean, would, he thought, have been betraying not only a want of perseverance, but of judgment, in supposing it to have been so well explored, that nothing farther could be done. Although he had proved that there was no continent but what must lie far to the south, there remained, nevertheless, room for very large islands in places wholly unexamined. Many, likewise, of those which had formerly been discovered had been but imperfectly explored, and their situations were as imperfectly known. He was also pursuaded, that his continuing some time longer in this sea would be productive of improvements in navigation and geography, as well as in other sciences.
In consequence of these views, it was Captain Cook's intention first to go in search of the land said to have been discovered by Juan Fernandez, in the last century. If he should fail in finding this land, he proposed to direct his course in quest of Easter Island or Davis's Land, the situation of which was known with so little certainty, that none of the attempts lately made for its discovery had been successful. He next intended to get within the tropic, and then to proceed to the west, touching at, and settling the situations of such islands, as he might meet with till he arrived at Otaheite, where it was necessary for him to stop, to look for the Adventure. It was also in his contemplation to run as far west as the Tierra Austral del Espiritu Santo, which was discovered by Quiros, and to which M. de Bougainville has given the name of the Great Cyclades. From this land, it was the captain's plan to steer to the south, and so back to the east, between the latitudes of fifty and sixty. In the execution of this plan, it was his purpose, if possible, to attain the length of Cape Horn in the ensuing November, when he should have the best part of the summer before him, to explore the southern part of the Atlantic Ocean. Great as was this design, our commander thought it capable of being carried into execution; and when he communicated it to his officers, he had the satisfaction of finding that it received their zealous and cheerful concurrence. They displayed the utmost readiness for executing, in the most effectual manner, every measure he thought proper to adopt. With such good examples to direct them, the seamen were always obedient and alert; and on the present occasion, so far were they from wishing the voyage to be concluded, that they rejoiced at the prospect of its being prolonged another year, and of soon enjoying the benefits of a milder climate.
In pursuing his course to the north, Captain Cook became well assured, that the discovery of Juan Fernandez, if any such was ever made, could be nothing more than a small island. At this time, the captain was attacked by a bilious colic, the violence of which confined him to his bed. The management of the ship, upon this occasion, was left to Mr. Cooper, the first officer, who conducted her entirely to his commander's satisfaction. It was several days before the most dangerous symptoms of Captain Cook's disorder were removed; during which time, Mr. Patten the surgeon, in attending upon him, manifested not only the skilfulness of a physician, but the tenderness of a nurse. When the captain began to recover, a favourite dog, belonging to Mr. Forster, fell a sacrifice to his tender stomach. There was no other fresh meat whatever on board, and he could eat not only of the broth which was made of it, but of the flesh itself, when there was nothing else that he was capable of tasting. Thus did he derive nourishment and strength from food, which to most people in Europe, would have been in the highest degree disgusting, and productive of sickness. The necessity of the case overcame every feeling of dislike.
On the 11th of March, our navigators came within sight of Easter Island, or Davis's Land; their transactions at which place were of too little moment to deserve a particular recital. The inhabitants are, in general, a slender race. In colour, features, and language, they bear such an affinity to the people of the more western isles, that there can be no doubt of their having been descended from one common original. It is indeed extraordinary, that the same nation should have spread themselves to so wide an extent, as to take in almost a fourth part of the circumference of the globe. With regard to the disposition of the natives of Easter Island, it is friendly and hospitable; but they are as much addicted to stealing, as any of their neighbours. The island itself hath so little to recommend it, that no nation need to contend for the honour of its discovery. So sparing has nature been of her favours to this spot, that there is in it no safe anchorage, no wood for fuel, no fresh water worth taking on board. The most remarkable objects in the country are some surprising gigantic statues, which were first seen by Roggewein.
It was with pleasure that our commander quitted a place, which could afford such slender accommodations to voyagers, and directed his course for the Marquesas Islands. He had not been long at sea, before he was again attacked by his bilious disorder. The attack, however, was not so violent as the former one had been. He had reason to believe, that the return of his disease was owing to his having exposed and fatigued himself too much at Easter Island.
On the 6th and 7th of April, our navigators came within sight of four islands, which they knew to be the Marquesas. To one of them, which was a new discovery, Captain Cook gave the name of Hood's Island, after that of the young gentleman by whom it was first seen. As soon as the ship was brought to an anchor in Madre de Dios, or Resolution Bay, in the Island of St. Christina, a traffic commenced, in the course of which the natives would frequently keep our goods, without making any return. At last the captain was obliged to fire a musket-ball over one man, who had several times treated the English in this manner. This produced only a temporary effect. Too many of the Indians having come on board, our commander, who was going into a boat to find a convenient place for mooring the ship, said to the officers, "You must look well after these people or they will certainly carry off something or other." Scarcely had he gotten into the boat, when he was informed, that they had stolen an iron stanchion from the opposite gangway, and were carrying it off. Upon this he ordered his men to fire over the canoe, till he could get round in the boat, but not to kill any one. Such, however, was the noise made by the natives, that the order was not heard; and the unhappy thief was killed at the first shot. All the Indians having retired with precipitation, in consequence of this unfortunate accident, Captain Cook followed them into the bay, prevailed upon some of them to come alongside his boat, and, by suitable presents, so far conciliated their minds, that their fears seemed to be in a great measure allayed. The death of their countryman did not cure them of their thievish disposition; but, at length, it was somewhat restrained by their conviction, that no distance secured them from the reach of our muskets. Several smaller instances of their talent at stealing, the captain thought proper to overlook.
The provisions obtained at St. Christina were yams, plantains, breadfruit, a few cocoa-nuts, fowls, and small pigs. For a time, the trade was carried on upon reasonable terms: but the market was at last ruined by the indiscretion of some young gentlemen, who gave away in exchange various articles which the inhabitants had not seen before, and which captivated their fancy above nails, or more useful iron tools. One of the gentleman had given for a pig a very large quantity of red feathers, which he had gotten at Amsterdam. The effect of this was particularly fatal. It was not possible to support the trade, in the manner in which it was now begun, even for a single day. When, therefore, our commander found that he was not likely to be supplied, on any conditions, with sufficient refreshments, and that the island was neither very convenient for taking in wood and water, nor for affording the necessary repairs of the ship, he determined to proceed immediately to some other place, where the wants of his people could be effectually relieved. After having been nineteen weeks at sea, and having lived all that time upon salt diet, a change in their food could not avoid being peculiarly desirable: and yet, on their arrival at St. Christina, it could scarcely be asserted that a single man was sick; and there were but a few who had the least complaint of any kind. 'This,' says Captain Cook, 'was undoubtedly owing to the many antiscorbutic articles we had on board, and to the great attention of the surgeon, who was remarkably careful to apply them in time.' It may justly be added, that this was likewise owing to the singular care of the captain himself, and to the exertions of his authority, in enforcing the excellent regulations which his wisdom and humanity had adopted.
The chief reason for our commander's touching at the Marquesas Islands, was to fix their situation; that being the only circumstance in which the nautical account of them, given in Mr. Dalrymple's collection, is deficient. It was farther desirable to settle this point, as it would lead to a more accurate knowledge of Mendana's other discoveries. Accordingly, Captain Cook has marked the situation of the Marquesas with his usual correctness. He has also taken care to describe the particular cove in Resolution Bay, in the island of St. Christina, which is most convenient for obtaining wood and water.
It is remarkable, with respect to the inhabitants of the Marquesas Islands, that collectively taken, they are, without exception the finest race of people in this sea. Perhaps they surpass all other nations in symmetry of form, and regularity of features. It is plain, however, from the affinity of their language to that of Otaheite and the Society Isles, that they are of the same origin. Of this affinity the English were fully sensible, though they could not converse with them; but Oedidee was capable of doing it tolerably well.
From the Marquesas, Captain Cook steered for Otaheite, with a view of falling in with some of the islands discovered by former navigators, and especially by the Dutch, the situation of which had not been accurately determined. In the course of the voyage, he passed a number of low islots, connected together by reefs of coral rocks. One of the islands, on which Lieutenant Cooper went on shore, with two boats well armed, was called by the natives Tiookea. It had been discovered and visited by Captain Byron. The inhabitants of Tiookea are of a much darker colour than those of the higher islands, and appeared to be more fierce in their dispositions. This may be owing to their manner of gaining their subsistence, which is chiefly from the sea, and to their being much exposed to the sun and the weather. Our voyagers observed, that they were stout well-made men, and that they had marked on their bodies the figure of a fish, which was a good emblem of their profession.
Besides passing by St. George's Islands, which had been so named by Captain Byron, our commander made the discovery of four others. These he called Palliser's Isles, in honour of his particular friend, Sir Hugh Palliser. The inhabitants seemed to be the same sort of people as those of Tiookea, and, like them, were armed with long pikes. Captain Cook could not determine with any degree of certainty, whether the group of isles he had lately seen, were, or were not, any of those that had been discovered by the Dutch navigators. This was owing to the neglect of recording, with sufficient accuracy, the situation of their discoveries. Our commander, hath, in general, observed with regard to this part of the ocean, that, from the latitude of twenty down to fourteen or twelve, and from the meridian of a hundred and thirty-eight to a hundred and forty-eight or a hundred and fifty west, it is so strewed with low isles, that a navigator cannot proceed with too much caution.
On the 22nd of April, Captain Cook reached the Island of Otaheite, and anchored in Matavia Bay. As his chief reason for putting in at this place was to give Mr. Wales an opportunity of ascertaining the error Of the watch by the known longitude, and to determine anew her rate of going, the first object was to land the instruments, and to erect tents for the reception of a guard, and such other people, as it was necessary to have on shore. Sick there were none; for the refreshments which had been obtained at the Marquesas had removed every complaint of that kind.
From the quantity of provisions, which, contrary to expectation, our commander now found at Otaheite, he determined to make a longer stay in the island than he had at first intended. Accordingly, he took measures for the repairs of the ship, which the high southern latitudes had rendered indispensably necessary.
During Captain Cook's stay at Otaheite, he maintained a most friendly connexion with the inhabitants; and a continual interchange of visits was preserved between him and Otoo, Towha, and other chiefs of the country. His traffic with them was greatly facilitated by his having fortunately brought with him some red parrot feathers from the island of Amsterdam. These were jewels of high value in the eyes of the Otaheitans. The captain's stock in trade was by this time greatly exhausted; so that, if it had not been for the feathers, he would have found it difficult to have supplied the ship with the necessary refreshments.
Among other entertainments which our commander and the rest of the English gentlemen met with at Otaheite, one was a grand naval review. The vessels of war consisted of a hundred and sixty large double canoes, well equipped, manned, and armed. They were decorated with flags and streamers; and the chiefs, together with all those who were on the fighting stages, were dressed in their war habits. The whole fleet made a noble appearance; such as our voyagers had never seen before in this sea, or could ever have expected. Besides the vessels of war, there were a hundred and seventy sail of smaller double canoes, which seemed to be designed for transports and victuallers. Upon each of them was a little house; and they were rigged with mast and sail, which was not the case with the war canoes. Captain Cook guessed, that there were no less than seven thousand seven hundred and sixty men in the whole fleet. He was not able to obtain full information concerning the design of this armament.
Notwithstanding the agreeable intercourse that was, in general, maintained between our commander and the people of Otaheite, circumstances occasionally happened, which called for peculiar exertions of his prudence and resolution. One of the natives, who had attempted to steal a water-cask from the watering-place, was caught in the fact, sent on board, and put in irons. In this situation, he was seen by King Otoo, and other chiefs. Captain Cook having made known to them the crime of their countryman, Otoo entreated that he might be set at liberty. This the captain however refused, alleging, that since he punished his own people, when they committed the least offence against Otoo's, it was but just that this man should also be punished. As Captain Cook knew that Otoo would not punish him, he resolved to do it himself. Accordingly, he directed the criminal to be carried on shore to the tents, and having himself followed, with the chiefs and other Otaheitans, he ordered the guard out, under arms, and commanded the man to be tied up to a post. Otoo again solicited the culprit's release, and in this he was seconded by his sister, but in vain. The captain expostulated with him on the conduct of the man, and of the Indians in general; telling him, that neither he nor any of the ship's company, took the smallest matter of property from them without first paying for it; enumerating the articles which the English had given in exchange for such and such things; and urging, that it was wrong in them to steal from those who were their friends. He added, that the punishing of the guilty person would be the means of saving the lives of several of Otoo's people, by deterring them from committing crimes of the like nature, and thus preventing them from the danger of being shot to death, which would certainly happen, at one time or other, if they persisted in their robberies. With these arguments the king appeared to be satisfied, and only desired that the man might not be killed. Captain Cook then directed, that the crowd, which was very great, should be kept at a proper distance, and, in the presence of them all, ordered the fellow two dozen of lashes with a cat-o'-nine-tails. This punishment the man sustained with great firmness, after which he was set at liberty. When the natives were going away, Towha called them back, and, with much gracefulness of action, addressed them in a speech of nearly half an hour in length, the design of which was to condemn their present conduct, and to recommend a different one for the future. To make a farther impression upon the minds of the inhabitants, our commander ordered his marines to go through their exercises, and to load and fire in volleys with ball. As they were very quick in their manoeuvres, it is more easy to conceive than to describe the amazement which possessed the Indians during the whole time, and especially those of them who had not seen any thing of the kind before.
The judicious will discern, with regard to this narrative, that it throws peculiar light on Captain Cook's character. Nor is it an uncurious circumstance in the history of human society, that a stranger should thus exercise jurisdiction over the natives of a country, in the presence of the prince of that country, without his authority, and even contrary to his solicitations.
Another disagreeable altercation with the inhabitants of Otaheite arose from the negligence of one of the English sentinels on shore. Having either slept or quitted his post, an Indian seized the opportunity of carrying off his musket. When any extraordinary theft was committed, it immediately excited such an alarm among the natives in general, from their fear of Captain Cook's resentment, that they fled from their habitations, and a stop was put to the traffic for provisions. On the present occasion, the captain had no small degree of trouble; but, by his prudent conduct, the musket was recovered, peace restored, and commerce again opened. In the differences which happened with the several people he met with in his voyages, it was a rule with him, never to touch the least article of their property, any farther than to detain their canoes for a while, when it became absolutely necessary. He always chose the most mild and equitable methods of bringing them to reason; and in this he not only succeeded, but frequently put things upon a better footing than if no contention had taken place.
During this visit to Otaheite, fruit and other refreshments were obtained in great plenty. The relief arising from them was the more agreeable and salutary, as the bread of the ship was in a bad condition. Though the biscuit had been aired and picked at New Zealand, it was now in such a state of decay, that it was necessary for it to undergo another airing and cleaning, in which much of it was found wholly rotten, and unfit to be eaten. This decay was judged to be owing to the ice our navigators had frequently taken in, when to the southward, which made the hold of the vessel cold and damp, and to the great heat that succeeded when they came to the north. Whatever was the cause, the loss was so considerable, that the men were put to a scanty allowance in this article, with the additional mortification, of the bread's being bad as could be used.
Two goats, that had been given by Captain Furneaux to Otoo, in the former part of the voyage, seemed to promise fair for answering the purposes for which they were left upon the island. The ewe, soon after, had two female kids, which were now so far grown as to be almost ready to propagate. At the same time, the old ewe was again with kid. The people were very fond of them, and they were in excellent condition. From these circumstances, Captain cook entertained a hope, that, in a course of years they would multiply so much, as to be extended over all the isles of the Southern Ocean. The like success did not attend the sheep which had been left in the country. These speedily died, one excepted, which was said to be yet alive. Our navigators also furnished the natives with cats, having given away no less than twenty at Otaheite, besides some which had been made presents of at Ulietea and Huaheine.
With regard to the number of the inhabitants of Otaheite, our commander collected, from comparing several facts together, that, including women and children, there could not be less, in the whole island, than two hundred and four thousand. This number, at first sight, exceeded his belief. But when he came to reflect on the vast swarms of people that appeared whereever he went, he was convinced, that the estimate was agreeable to truth.
Such was the friendly treatment which our voyagers met with at Otaheite, that one of the gunner's mates was induced to form a plan for remaining in the country. As he knew that he could not execute his scheme with success, while the Resolution continued in Matavai Bay, he took the opportunity, when she was ready to quit it, and the sails were set for the purpose, to slip overboard. Being a good swimmer, he had no doubt of getting safe to a canoe, which was at some distance ready to receive him; for his design was concerted with the natives, and had even been encouraged by Otoo. However, he was discovered before he had gotten clear of the ship, and a boat being presently hoisted out, he was taken up, and brought back to the vessel. When our commander reflected on this man's situation, he did not think him very culpable, or his desire of staying in the island so extraordinary, as might at first view be imagined. He was a native of Ireland, and had sailed in the Dutch service. Captain Cook, on his return from his former voyage, had picked him up at Batavia, and had kept him in his employment ever since. It did not appear, that he had either friends or connexions, which could bind him to any particular part of the world. All nations being alike to him, where could he be more happy than at Otaheite? Here, in one of the finest climates of the globe, he could enjoy not only the necessaries, but the luxuries of life, in ease and plenty. The captain seems to think, that if the man had applied to him in time, he might have given his consent to his remaining in the country.
On the 15th of May, Captain Cook anchored in O'Wharre Harbour, in the island of Huaheine. He was immediately visited by his friend Oree, and the same agreeable intercourse subsisted between the captain and this good old chief, which had formerly taken place. Red feathers were not here in such estimation as they had been at Otaheite; the natives of Huaheine having the good sense to give a preference to the more useful articles of nails and axes. During the stay of our voyagers in the island, some alarms were occasioned by the thievish disposition of several of the inhabitants; but matters subsided without any material consequences. A solemn march, which our commander made through part of the country, at the head of forty-eight men, tended to impress the Indians with a sense of his power and authority. In fact, their attempts at stealing had been too much invited by the indiscretion of some of the English, who unguardedly separated themselves in the woods, for the purpose of killing birds; and who managed their muskets so unskillfully, as to render them less formidable in the eyes of the natives.
I cannot persuade myself to omit a dramatic entertainment, at which several of the gentlemen belonging to the Resolution attended one evening. The piece represented a girl as running away with our navigators from Otaheite; and the story was partly founded in truth; for a young woman had taken a passage in the ship, down to Ulietea. She happened to be present at the representation of her own adventures; which had such an effect upon her, that it was with great difficulty that she could be prevailed upon by the English gentlemen to see the play out, or to refrain from tears while it was acting. The piece concluded with the reception which she was supposed to meet with from her friends at her return; and it was a reception that was by no means favourable. As these people, when they see occasion, can add little extempore pieces to their entertainments, it is reasonable to imagine, that the representation now described was intended as a satire against the girl, and to discourage others from following her steps. Such is the sense which they entertain of the propriety of female decorum.
During Captain Cook's stay at Huaheine, breadfruit, cocoa-nuts, and other vegetable productions, were procured in abundance, but not a sufficiency of hogs to supply the daily expense of the ship. This was partly owing to a want of proper articles for traffic. The captain was obliged, therefore, to set the smiths at work to make different sorts of nails, iron tools, and instruments, in order to enable him to obtain refreshments at the islands he was yet to visit, and to support his credit and influence among the natives.
When our commander was ready to sail from Huaheine, Oree was the last man that went out of the vessel. At parting, Captain Cook told him, that they should meet each other no more; at which he wept and said, 'Let your sons come, we will treat them well.'
At Ulietea, to which the captain next directed his course, the events that occurred were nearly similar to those which have already been related. He had always been received by the people of this island in the most hospitable manner, and they were justly entitled to every thing which it was in his power to grant. They expressed the deepest concern at his departure, and were continually importuning him to return. Oree the chief, and his wife and daughter, but especially the two latter, scarcely ever ceased weeping. Their grief was so excessive, that it might, perhaps, be doubted whether it was entirely sincere and unaffected; but our commander was of opinion that it was real. At length, when he was ready to sail, they took a most affectionate leave. Oree's last request to Captain Cook was, that he would return; and when he could not obtain a promise to that effect, he asked the name of his burying-place. To this strange question the captain answered, without hesitation, that it was Stepney; that being the parish in which he lived when in London. Mr. Forster, to whom the same question was proposed, replied with greater wisdom and recollection, that no man, who used the sea, could say where he should be buried.
As our commander could not promise, or even then suppose, that more English ships would be sent to the southern isles, Oedidee, who for so many months had been the faithful companion of our navigators, chose to remain in his native country. But he left them with a regret fully demonstrative of his esteem and affection, nor could any thing have torn him from them, but the fear of never returning. When Oree pressed so ardently Captain Cook's return, he sometimes gave such answers, as left room for hope. At these answers Oedidee would eagerly catch, take him on one side, and ask him over again. The captain declares, that he had not words to describe the anguish which appeared in this young man's breast, when he went away. He looked up at the ship, burst into tears, and then sunk down into the canoe. Oedidee was a youth of good parts, and of a docile, gentle, and humane disposition; but as he was almost wholly ignorant of the religion, government, manners, customs, and traditions of his countrymen, and the neighbouring islands, no material knowledge could have been collected from him, had our commander brought him away. He would, however, in every respect, have been a better specimen of the nation than Omai.
When Captain Cook first came to these islands, he had some thoughts of visiting Tupia's famous Bolabola. But having obtained a plentiful supply of refreshments, and the route he had in view allowing him no time to spare, he laid this design aside, and directed his course to the west. Thus did he take his leave, as he then thought, for ever, of these happy isles, on which benevolent nature has spread her luxuriant sweets with a lavish hand; and in which the natives, copying the bounty of Providence, are equally liberal; being ready to contribute plentifully and cheerfully to the wants of navigators.
[Footnote 8: From Mr. Wales's observations it appeared, that
during five mouths, in which the watch had passed through the
extremes of heat and cold, it went better in the cold than in the
On the 6th of June, the day after our voyagers left Ulietea, they saw land, which they found to be a low reef island, about four leagues in compass, and of a circular form. This was Howe Island, which had been discovered by Captain Wallis. Nothing remarkable occurred from tills day to the 16th, when land was again seen. It was another reef island; and being a new discovery, Captain Cook gave it the name of Palmerston Island, in honour to Lord Palmerston. On the 20th, fresh land appeared, which was perceived to be inhabited. This induced our commander to go on shore with a party of gentlemen; but the natives were found to be fierce and untractable. All endeavours to bring them to a parley were to no purpose; for they came on with the ferocity of wild boars, and instantly threw their darts. Two or three muskets discharged in the air, did not prevent one of them from advancing still farther, and throwing another dart, or rather a spear, which passed close over Captain Cook's shoulder. The courage of this man had nearly cost him his life. When he threw his spear, he was not five paces from the captain, who had resolved to shoot him for his own preservation. It happened, however, that his musket missed fire; a circumstance on which he afterward reflected with pleasure. When he joined his party, and tried his musket in the air, it went off perfectly well. This island, from the disposition and behaviour of the natives, with whom no intercourse could be established, and from whom no benefit could be received, was called by our commander Savage Island. It is about eleven leagues in circuit; is of a round form and good height: and has deep waters close to its shores. Among its other disadvantages, it is not furnished with a harbour.
In pursuing his course to the west-south-west, Captain Cook passed by a number of small islands, and, on the 26th, anchored on the north side of Anamocka, or Rotterdam. A traffic immediately commenced with the natives, who brought what provisions they had, being chiefly yams and shaddocks, which they exchanged for nails, beads, and other small articles. Here, as in many former cases, the captain was put to some trouble, on account of the thievish disposition of the inhabitants. As they had gotten possession of an adze and two muskets, he found it necessary to exert himself with peculiar vigour, in order to oblige them to make a restitution. For this purpose, he commanded all the marines to be armed, and sent on shore; and the result of this measure was, that the things which had been stolen were restored. In the contest, Captain Cook was under the necessity of firing some small shot at a native, who had distinguished himself by his resistance. His countrymen afterward reported that he was dead; but he was only wounded, and that not in a dangerous manner. Though his sufferings were the effects of his own misbehaviour the captain endeavoured to soften them by making him a present, and directing his wounds to be dressed by the surgeon of the ship.
The first time that our commander landed at Anamocka, an old lady presented him with a girl, and gave him to understand that she was at his service. Miss, who had previously been instructed, wanted a spikenail or a shirt, neither of which he had to give her; and he flattered himself, that by making the two women sensible of his poverty, he should easily get clear of their importunities. In this, however, he was mistaken. The favours of the young lady were offered upon credit; and on his declining the proposal, the old woman began to argue with him, and then to abuse him. As far as he could collect from her countenance and her actions, the design of her speech was both to ridicule and reproach him, for refusing to entertain so fine a young woman. Indeed the girl was by no means destitute of beauty; but Captain Cook found it more easy to withstand her allurements than the abuses of the ancient matron, and therefore hastened into his boat.
While the captain was on shore at Anamocka, he got the names of twenty islands, which lie between the north-west and north-east. Some of them were in sight; and two of them, which are most to the west, are remarkable on account of their great height. These are Amattafoa and Oghao. From a continual column of smoke which was seen daily ascending from the middle of Amattafoa, it was judged that there was a volcano in that island.
Anamocka was first discovered by Tasman, and by him was named Rotterdam. It is of a triangular form, and each side extends about three and a half or four miles. From the north-west to the south of the island, round by the east and north, it is encompassed by a number of small isles, sand-banks, and breakers. An end could not be seen to their extent to the north, and they may possibly reach as far to the south as Amsterdam or Tongataboo. Together with Middleburg, or Eaoowe, and Pilsart, these form a group, containing about three degrees of latitude, and two of longitude. To this group Captain Cook had given the name of the Friendly Isles, or Archipelago, from the firm alliance and friendship which seemed to subsist among their inhabitants, and from their courteous behaviour to strangers. The same group may perhaps be extended much farther, even down to Boscawen and Keppel's Isles, which were discovered by Captain Wallis, and lie nearly in the same meridian.
Whilst our commander was at Anamocka, he was particularly assiduous to prevent the introduction of a certain disorder. As some of his people brought with them the remains of this disease from the Society Isles, he prohibited them from having any female intercourse, and he had reason to believe that his endeavours were successful.
The productions of Rotterdam, and the persons, manners, and customs of its inhabitants, are similar to those of Amsterdam. It is not, however equally plentiful in its fruits, nor is every part of it in so high a state of cultivation. Neither hath it arisen to the same degree of wealth, with regard to cloth, matting, ornaments, and other articles which constitute the chief riches of the islanders of the Southern Ocean.
Pursuing their course to the west, our navigators discovered land on the 1st of July; and, upon a nearer approach, found it to be a small island, to which, on account of the number of turtle that were seen upon the coast, Captain Cook gave the name of Turtle Isle. On the 16th, high land was seen bearing south-west, which no one doubted to be the Australis del Espirito Santo of Quiros, and which is called by M. de Bougainville the Great Cyclades. After exploring the coast for some days, the captain came to an anchor, in a harbour in the island of Mallicollo. One of his first objects was to commence a friendly intercourse with the natives; but, while he was thus employed, an accident occurred, which threw all into confusion, though in the end it was rather advantageous than hurtful to the English. A fellow in a canoe, having been refused admittance into one of our boats, bent his bow to shoot a poisoned arrow at the boatkeeper. Some of his countrymen having prevented his doing it that instant, time was given to acquaint our commander with the transaction, who immediately ran upon deck. At this minute, the Indian had directed his bow to the boatkeeper; but upon being called to by Captain Cook, he pointed it at him. Happily, the captain had a musket in his hand loaded with small shot, and gave him the contents. By this however, he was only staggered for a moment; for he still held his bow in the attitude of shooting. A second discharge of the same nature made him drop it, and obliged him, together with the other natives who were in the canoe, to paddle off with all possible celerity. At this time, some of the inhabitants began to shoot arrows from another quarter. A musket discharged in the air had no effect upon them, but no sooner was a four-pound ball shot over their heads than they fled in the utmost confusion.
A few hours after these transactions, the English put off in two boats, and landed in the face of four or five hundred people, who were assembled on the shore and who, though they were all armed with bows and arrows, clubs, and spears, made not the least opposition. On the contrary, when they saw Captain Cook advance with nothing but a green branch in his hand, one of them, who appeared to be a chief, giving his bow and arrows to another, met the captain in the water, bearing also a green branch. These being mutually exchanged in token of friendship, the chief led our commander to the crowd, to whom he immediately distributed presents. The marines, in the mean time, were drawn up on the beach. Captain Cook then acquainted the Indians, by signs, that he wanted wood; and in the same manner permission was granted him to cut down the trees.
Much traffic could not be carried on with these people, because they set no value on nails, or iron tools, or, indeed, on any articles which our navigators could furnish. In such exchanges as they did make, and which were principally of arrows for pieces of cloth, they distinguished themselves by their honesty. When the ship had begun to sail from the island, and they might easily, in consequence of their canoes dropping astern, have avoided delivering the things they had been paid for, they used their utmost efforts to get up with her, that they might discharge their obligations. One man, in particular, followed the Resolution, a considerable time, and did not reach her till the object which brought him was forgotten. As soon as he came alongside the vessel, he held up the thing which had been purchased; and, though several of the crew offered to buy it, he insisted upon delivering it to the person to whom it had been sold. That person, not knowing him again, would have given something in return; but this he refused, and shewed him what he had before received. There was only a single instance in which the natives took, or even attempted to take, any thing from our voyagers, by any means whatever; and in that case restitution was immediately made, without trouble and without altercation.
The inhabitants of Mallicollo, in general, are the most ugly and ill proportioned people that Captain Cook had ever seen, and are in every respect different from all the nations which had been met with in the Southern Ocean. They are a very dark-coloured, and rather a diminutive race, with long heads, flat faces, and countenances, which have some resemblance to that of the monkey. Their hair, which is mostly black or brown, is short and curly; but not altogether so soft and woolly as that of a negro. The difference of this people from any whom our commander had yet visited, appeared not only in their persons but their language. Of about eighty words, which were collected by Mr. Forster, scarcely one was found to bear any affinity to the language spoken in any country or island hitherto described. It was observed by Captain Cook, that the natives could pronounce most of the English words with great ease. They had not so much as a name for a dog, and knew nothing of that animal; for which reason the captain left them a dog and a bitch; and as they were very fond of them, it was highly probable that the breed would be fostered and increased.
To the harbour, in which our commander anchored, while he lay at Mallicollo, he gave the name of Port Sandwich. It has many advantages, with regard to depth of water, shelter from winds, and lying so near the shore as to be a cover to those of a ship's company who may be carrying on any necessary operations at land.
Soon after our navigators had gotten to sea, which was on the 23rd of July, they discovered three or four small islands, that before had appeared to be connected. At this time the Resolution was not far from the Isle of Ambrym, the Isle of Paoom, and the Isle of Apee. On the next morning, several more islands were discovered, lying off the south-east point of Apee, and constituting a group, which Captain Cook called Shepherd's isles, in honour of his learned and valuable friend, Dr. Shepherd, Plumian professor of Astronomy at Cambridge. The ship was this day in some danger. It suddenly fell calm, and our voyagers were left to the mercy of the current, close by the isles, where no sounding could be found with a line of a hundred and eighty fathoms. The lands or islands, which lay around the vessel in every direction, were so numerous, that they could not be counted. At this crisis a breeze sprung up, which happily relieved the captain and his company from the anxiety the calm had occasioned.
Amidst the number of islands, that were continually seen by our navigators, there was only one on which no inhabitants were discerned. This consisted chiefly of a remarkable peaked rock, which was only accessible to birds, and which obtained the name of the Monument.
In the farther course of the ship to the southward, our navigators drew near to certain lands, which they found to consist of one large island, the southern and western extremities of which extended beyond their sight. Three or four smaller ones lay off its north side. To the two principal of these Captain Cook gave the name of Montagu and Hinchinbrook; and the large island he named Sandwich, in honour of his noble patron, the Earl of Sandwich. This island, which was spotted with woods and lawns, agreeably diversified over the whole surface, and which had a gentle slope from the hills down to the sea-coast exhibited a most beautiful and delightful prospect. The examination of it was not, however, so much an object with our commander as to proceed to the south, in order to find the southern extremity of the Archipelago.
Pursuing his discoveries, Captain Cook came in sight of an island, which was afterwards known to be called by the natives Erromango. After coasting it for three days, he brought his vessel to anchor in a bay there, on the 3rd of August. The next day, he went with two boats to examine the coast, and to look for a proper landing-place, that he might obtain a supply of wood and water. At this time, the inhabitants began to assemble on the shore, and by signs to invite our people to land. Their behaviour was apparently so friendly, that the captain was charmed with it; and the only thing which could give him the least suspicion was, that most of them were armed with clubs, spears, darts, and bows and arrows. He did not, therefore, remit his vigilance; but kept his eye continually upon the chief, watching his looks, as well as his actions. It soon was evident that the intentions of the Indians were totally hostile. They made a violent attempt to sieze upon one of the boats; and though, on our commander's pointing a musket at them, they in some measure desisted, yet they returned in an instant, seemingly determined to carry their design into execution. At the head of the party was the chief; while others, who could not come at the boat, stood behind with darts, stones, and bows and arrows in hand, ready to support their countrymen. As signs and threats had no effect, the safety of Captain Cook and his people became the only object of consideration; and yet he was unwilling to fire on the multitude. He resolved, therefore, to make the chief alone the victim of his own treachery, and accordingly aimed his musket at him; but at this critical moment it missed fire. This circumstance encouraged the natives to despise our weapons, and to shew the superiority of their own, by throwing stones and darts and by shooting arrows. Hence it became absolutely necessary for the captain to give orders to his men to fire upon the assailants. The first discharge threw them into confusion; but a second was scarcely sufficient to drive them off the beach. In consequence of this skirmish, four of the Indians lay, to all appearance, dead on the shore. However, two of them were afterward perceived to crawl into the bushes; and it was happy for these people that not half of the muskets of the English would go off, since otherwise many more must have fallen. The inhabitants were, at length, so terrified as to make no farther appearance; and two oars which had been lost in the conflict, were left standing up against the bushes.
It was observed of these islanders, that they seemed of a different race from those of Mallicollo, and that they spoke a different language. They are of a middle size, with a good shape and tolerable features. Their colour is very dark; and their aspect is not mended by a custom they have of painting their faces, some with black, and others with red pigment. As to their hair, it is curly and crisp, and somewhat woolly. The few women who were seen, and who appeared to be ugly, wore a kind of petticoat, made either of palm leaves, or a plant similar in its nature; but the men, like those of Mallicollo, were almost entirely naked. On account of the treacherous behaviour of the inhabitants of Erromango, Captain Cook called a promontory, or peninsula, near which the skirmish happened, _Traitor's Head_.
From this place the captain sailed for an island which had been discovered before, at a distance, and at which, on account of his wanting a large quantity of wood and water, he was resolved to make some stay. At first the natives were disposed to be very hostile but our commander, with equal wisdom and humanity contrived to terrify them, without danger to their lives. This was principally effected by firing a few great guns, at which they were so much alarmed, as afterwards to be brought to tolerable order. Among these islanders, many were inclined to be on friendly terms with our navigators, and especially the old people; whilst most of the younger were daring and insolent, and obliged the English to keep to their arms. It was natural enough, that age should be prudent and cautious, and youth bold and impetuous; and yet this distinction, with regard to the behaviour of the various nations which had been visited by Captain Cook, had not occurred before.
The island, where the captain now stayed, was found upon inquiry to be called, by the inhabitants, Tanna; and three others in its neighbourhood, and which could be seen from it, were distinguished by the names of Immer, Erronan or Footoona and Annatom.
From such information of the natives, as our commander could see no reason to doubt, it appeared, that circumcision was practised among them, and that they were eaters of human flesh. Concerning the latter subject, he should never have thought of asking them a single question, if they had not introduced it themselves, by inquiring whether the English had the same custom. It hath been argued, that necessity alone could be the origin of this horrid practice. But as the people of Tanna are possessed of fine pork and fowls, together with an abundance of roots and fruits, the plea of necessity cannot be urged in their behalf. In fact, no instance was seen of their eating human flesh; and, therefore, there might, perhaps, be some reason to hesitate, in pronouncing them to be cannibals.
By degrees the inhabitants grew so courteous and civil, as to permit the English gentlemen to ramble about in the skirts of the woods, and to shoot in them, without affording them the least molestation, or shewing any dislike. One day, some boys of the island having gotten behind thickets, and thrown two or three stones at our people, who were cutting wood, they were fired at by the petty officers on duty. Captain Cook, who was then on shore, was alarmed at the report of the muskets; and, when he was informed of the cause, was much displeased that so wanton a use should be made of our fire-arms. Proper measures were taken by him to prevent such conduct for the future.
In the island of Tanna was a volcano, which sometimes made a dreadful noise, and, at each explosion, which happened every three or four minutes, threw up fire and smoke in prodigious columns. At one time, great stones were seen high in the air. At the foot of the hill were several hot springs; and on the side of it Mr. Forster found some places whence smoke of a sulphureous smell issued, through cracks or fissures of the earth. A thermometer that was placed in a little hole made in one of them, and which in the open air stood only at eighty, rose to a hundred and seventy. In another instance, the mercury rose to a hundred and ninety-one. Our commander, being desirous of getting a nearer and good view of the volcano, set out with a party for that purpose. But the gentlemen met with so many obstructions from the inhabitants, who were jealous of their penetrating far into the country, that they thought proper to return.
It is observable, with respect to the volcano of Tanna, that it is not on the ridge of the hill to which it belongs, but on its side. Nor is that hill the highest in the country, for there are others near it of more than double its height. It was in moist and wet weather that the volcano was most violent.
When our commander was ready to sail from Tanna, an event happened, which gave him much concern. Just as our people were getting some logs into the boat, four or five of the natives stepped forward to see what they were doing. In consequence of the Indians not being allowed to come within certain limits, the sentinel ordered them back, upon which they readily complied. At this time, Captain Cook, who had his eyes fixed upon them, observed the sentry present his piece to the men. The captain was going to reprove him for his action, when, to his inexpressible astonishment, the sentry fired. An attack, so causeless and extraordinary, naturally threw the natives into great confusion. Most of them fled, and it was with difficulty that our commander could prevail upon a few of them to remain. As they ran off, he perceived one of them to fall, who was immediately lifted up by two others, who took him into the water, washed his wound, and then led him off. The wounded person not being carried far, Captain Cook sent for the surgeon of the ship, and accompanied him to the man, whom they found expiring. The rascal that had fired pretended that an Indian had laid an arrow across his bow, and was going to shoot at him: so that he apprehended himself to be in danger. This, however, was no more than what the islanders had always done, to shew that they were armed as well as our voyagers. What rendered, the present incident the more unfortunate was, that it was not the man who bent the bow, but one who stood near him, that was shot by the sentry.
The harbour where the captain anchored, during his stay at Tanna, was called by him Port Resolution, after the name of the ship, she being the first vessel by which it was ever entered. It is no more than a little creek, three quarters of a mile in length, and about half that space in breadth. No place can exceed it in its convenience for taking in wood and water, which are both close to the shore. The inhabitant of the island, with whom our commander had the most frequent and friendly connexions, was named Paowang.
Very little trade could be carried on with the people of Tanna. They had not the least knowledge of iron; and consequently nails, tools, and other articles made of that metal, and which are so greedily sought for in the more eastern isles, were here of no consideration. Cloth could be of no service to persons who go naked.
Among the productions of the island, there is reason to believe that the nutmeg-tree might be mentioned. This is collected from the circumstance of Mr. Forster's having shot a pigeon, in the craw of which a wild nut-meg was discovered. However, though he took some pains to find the tree, his endeavours were not attended with success.
It was at first thought by our navigators, that the inhabitants of Tanna were a race between the natives of the Friendly Islands and those of Mallicollo; but by a short acquaintance with them they were convinced, that they had little or no affinity to either, excepting in their hair. Some few men, women, and children, were seen, whose hair resembled that of the English. With regard, however, to these persons, it was obvious, that they were of another nation; and it was understood that they came from Erronan. Two languages were found to be spoken in Tanna. One of them, which appeared to have been introduced from Erronan, is nearly, if not exactly, the same with that of the Friendly islands. The other, which is the proper language of the country, and which is judged to be peculiar to Tanna, Erromango, and Annatom, is different from any that had hitherto been met with by our voyagers.
The people of Tanna, are of the middle size, and for the most part slender. There are few tall or stout men among them. In general, they have good feature and agreeable countenances. Like all the tropical race, they are active and nimble; and seem to excel in the use of arms, but not to be fond of labour. With respect to the management of their weapons, Mr. Wales hath made an observation so honourable to Homer, that were I to omit it, I should not be forgiven by my classical readers. 'I must confess,' says Mr. Wales. 'I have often been led to think the feats which Homer represents his heroes as performing with their spears, a little too much of the marvellous to be admitted into an heroic poem; I mean when confined within the strait stays of Aristotle. Nay, even so great an advocate for him as Mr. Pope, acknowledges them to be surprising. But since I have seen what these people can do with their wooden spears, and them badly pointed, and not of a hard nature, I have not the least exception to any one passage in that great poet on this account. But if I see fewer exceptions, I can find infinitely more beauties in him; as he has. I think, scarcely an action, circumstance, or description of any kind whatever, relating to a spear, which I have not seen and recognized among these people; as their whirling motion, and whistling noise, as they fly; their quivering motion, as they stick in the ground when they fall; their meditating their aim, when they are going to throw; and their shaking them in their hand, as they go along.'
On the 20th of August, Captain Cook sailed from Tanna, and employed all the remainder of the month in a farther examination of the islands around him. He had now finished his survey of the whole Archipelago, and had gained a knowledge of it, infinitely superior to what had ever been attained before. The northern islands of this Archipelago were first discovered in 1606, by that eminent navigator Quiros, who considered them as part of the Southern continent, which, at that time, and till very lately, was supposed to exist. M. de Bougainville was the next person by whom they were visited, in 1768. This gentleman, however, besides landing in the Isle of Lepers, only made the discovery, that the country was not connected, but composed of islands, which he called the Great Cyclades. Captain Cook, besides ascertaining the situation and extent of these islands, added to them several new ones, which had hitherto been unknown, and explored the whole. He thought, therefore, that he had obtained a right to name them; and accordingly he bestowed upon them the appellation of the _New Hebrides_. His title to this honour will not be disputed in any part of Europe, and certainly not by so enlightened and liberal a people as the French nation.
The season of the year now rendered it necessary for our commander to return to the south, while he had yet some time to explore any land he might meet with between the New Hebrides and New Zealand; at which last place he intended to touch, that he might refresh his people, and renew his stock of wood and water for another southern course. With this view, he sailed on the 1st of September, and on the 4th land was discovered; in a harbour belonging to which the Resolution came to an anchor the next day. The design of Captain Cook was not only to visit the country, but to have an opportunity of observing an eclipse of the sun, which was soon to happen. An intercourse immediately commenced with the inhabitants, who, during the whole of the captain's stay, behaved in a very civil and friendly manner. In return, he was solicitous to render them every service in his power. To Teabooma the chief, he sent among other articles, a dog and a bitch, both young, but nearly full grown. It was some time before Teabooma could believe that the two animals were intended for him; but when he was convinced of it, he was lost in an excess of joy. Another, and still more valuable present, was that of a young boar and sow; which, on account of the absence of the chief when they were brought to land, were received with great hesitation and ceremony.
The last time that our commander went on shore at this place, he ordered an inscription to be cut on a large tree, setting forth the name of the ship, the date of the year, and other circumstances, which testified that the English were the first discoverers of the country. This he had before done, wherever such a ceremony seemed necessary. How the island was called by the natives, our voyagers could never learn: and therefore, Captain Cook gave it the name of New Caledonia. The inhabitants are strong, robust, active, and well made. With regard to the origin of the nation, the captain judged them to be a race between the people of Tanna and the Friendly Isles; or between those of Tanna and the New Zealanders; or all three. Their language is in some respects a mixture of them all. In their disposition they are courteous and obliging; and they are not in the least addicted to pilfering, which is more than can be asserted concerning any other nation in this sea.
The women of New Caledonia, and those likewise of Tanna, were found to be much chaster than the females of the more eastern islands. Our commander never heard that the least favour was obtained from them by any one of his company. Sometimes, indeed, the women would exercise a little coquetry, but they went no farther.
The botanists of the ship did not here complain for want of employment. They were diligent in their researches, and their labours were amply rewarded. Every day brought some new accession to botanical knowledge, or that of other branches of natural history.
Every thing being ready to put to sea, Captain Cook weighed anchor on the 13th of September, with the purpose of examining the coast of New Caledonia. In pursuing this object, by which he was enabled to add greatly to nautical and geographical knowledge, the Resolution was more than once in danger of being lost, and particularly, in the night of the 28th of the month, she had a narrow escape. Our navigators, on this occasion, were much alarmed; and daylight shewed that their fears had not been ill founded. Indeed, breakers had been continually under their lee, and at a small distance from them; so that they were in the most imminent danger. 'We owed our safety,' says the captain, 'to the interposition of Providence, a good look-out, and the very brisk manner in which the ship was managed.'
Our commander now began to be tired of a coast which he could no longer explore but at the risk of losing the vessel, and ruining the whole voyage. He determined, however, not to leave it, till he knew of what kind some groves of trees were, which, by their uncommon appearance, had occasioned much speculation, and had been mistaken, by several of the gentlemen, for bisaltes. Captain Cook was the more solicitous to ascertain the point, as these trees appeared to be of a sort, which might be useful to shipping, and had not been seen any where, but in the southern parts of New Caledonia. They proved to be a species of spruce pine, very proper for spars, which were then wanted. The discovery was valuable, as, excepting New Zealand, there was not an island known, in the South Pacific Ocean, where the ship could supply herself with a mast or yard, to whatever distress she might be reduced. It was the opinion of the carpenter of the Resolution, who was a mastmaker as well as a shipwright, that very good masts might be made from the trees in question. The wood of them, which is white, close-grained, tough, and light, is well adapted to that purpose. One of the small islands where the trees were found, was called by the captain the Isle of Pines. To another, on account of its affording sufficient employment to the botanists, during the little time they stayed upon it, he gave the name of Botany Isle.
Captain Cook now took into serious consideration what was farther to be done. He had pretty well determined the extent of the south-west coast of New Caledonia, and would gladly have proceeded to a more accurate survey of the whole, had he not been deterred, not only by the dangers he must encounter, but by the time required for the undertaking, and which he could not possibly spare. Indeed, when he considered the vast ocean he had to explore to the south; the state and condition of the ship; the near approach of summer; and that any material accident might detain him in this sea even for another year, he did not think it advisable to make New Caledonia any longer the object of his attention. But though he was thus obliged, by necessity, for the first time, to leave a coast which he had discovered, before it was fully surveyed, he did not quit it till he had ascertained the extent of the country, and proved, that, excepting New Zealand, it was perhaps the largest island in the Southern Pacific Ocean.
As the Resolution pursued her course from New Caledonia, land was discovered, which on a nearer approach, was found to be an island, of good height, and five leagues in circuit. Captain Cook named it Norfolk Isle, in honour of the noble family of Howard. It was uninhabited; and the first persons that ever set foot on it were unquestionably our English navigators. Various trees and plants were observed that are common at New Zealand; and, in particular, the flax plant, which is rather more luxuriant here than in any part of that country. The chief produce of the island is a kind of spruce pine, exceedingly straight and tall, which grows in great abundance. Such is the size of many of the trees, that, breast high, they are as thick as two men can fathom. Among the vegetables of the place, the palm-cabbage afforded both a wholesome and palatable refreshment; and, indeed, proved the most agreeable repast that our people had for a considerable time enjoyed. In addition to this gratification, they had the pleasure of procuring some excellent fish.
From Norfolk Isle, our commander steered for New Zealand, it being his intention to touch at Queen Charlotte's Sound, that he might refresh his crew, and put the ship in a condition to encounter the southern latitudes. On the 18th of October, he anchored before Ship Cove in that sound; and the first thing he did, after landing, was to look for the bottle he had left on the shore, in which was a memorandum. It was taken away; and it soon appeared, from indubitable circumstances, that the Adventure had been in the cove after it was quitted by the Resolution.
Upon visiting the gardens which had been formed at Motuara, they were found almost in a state of nature, having been wholly neglected by the inhabitants. Many, however, of the articles were in a flourishing condition and shewed how well they liked the soil in which they were planted. It was several days before any of the natives made their appearance; but when they did so, and recognised Captain Cook and his friends, joy succeeded to fear. They hurried in numbers out of the woods, and embraced the English over and over again, leaping and skipping about like madmen. Amidst all this extravagance of joy, they were careful to preserve the honour of their females; for they would not permit some women, who were seen at a distance, to cone near our people. The captain's whole intercourse with the New Zealanders, during this his third visit to Queen Charlotte's Sound, was peaceable and friendly; and one of them, a man apparently of consequence, whose name was Pedro, presented him with a staff of honour, such as the chiefs generally carry. In return, our commander dressed Pedro, who had a fine person, and a good presence, in a suit of old clothes, of which he was not a little proud.
Captain Cook still continued his solicitude to stock the island with useful animals; and accordingly, in addition to what he had formerly done, he ordered two pigs a boar and sow, to be put on shore. There was reason to believe, that some of the cocks and hens which had formerly been left here still existed. None of them, indeed, were seen; but a hen's egg was found, which had not been long laid.
Mr. Wales had now an opportunity of completing his observations with regard to Queen Charlotte's Sound, so as to ascertain its latitude and longitude with the utmost accuracy. In the captain's former voyage there had been an error in this respect. Such were Mr. Wales's abilities and assiduity, that the same correctness was maintained by him, in determining the situation of all the other places which were visited by our navigators.
On the 10th of November, Captain Cook took his departure from New Zealand, in farther pursuit of his great object, the determination of the question concerning the existence of a southern continent. Having sailed till the 27th, in different degrees of latitude, extending from 43 to 55° 48' south, he gave up all hopes of finding any more land in this ocean. He came, therefore, to the resolution of steering directly for the west entrance of the Straits of Magalhaens, with a view of coasting the south side of Terra del Fuego, round Cape Horn, to the Strait Le Maire. As the world had hitherto obtained but a very imperfect knowledge of this shore, the captain thought that the full survey of it would be more advantageous, both to navigation and geography, than any thing he could expect to find in a higher latitude.
In the prosecution of his voyage, our commander, on the 17th of December, reached the west coast of Terra del Fuego; and having continued to range it till the 20th, he came to an anchor in a place to which he afterwards gave the name of Christmas Sound. Through the whole course of his various navigations, he had never seen so desolate a coast. It seems to be entirely composed of rocky mountains, without the least appearance of vegetation. These mountains terminate to horrible precipices, the craggy summits of which spire up to a vast height; so that scarcely any thing in nature can appear with a more barren and savage aspect, than the whole of the country.
The run which Captain Cook had made directly across the ocean in a high southern latitude, was believed by him to be the first of the kind that had ever been carried into execution. He was, therefore, somewhat particular in remarking every circumstance which seemed to be in the least material. However, he could not but observe, that he had never made a passage any where, of such length, or even of a much shorter extent, in which so few things occurred, that were of an interesting nature. Excepting the variation of the compass, he knew of nothing else that was worthy of notice. The captain had now done with the Southern Pacific Ocean; and he had explored it in such a manner, that it would be impossible for any one to think that more could be performed in a single voyage, towards obtaining that end, than had actually been accomplished.
Barren and dreary as the land is about Christmas Sound, it was not wholly destitute of some accomodations, which could not fail of being agreeable to our navigators. Near every harbour they found fresh water and wood for fuel. The country abounds like-wise with wild fowl, and particularly with geese; which afforded a refreshment to the whole crew, that was the more acceptable on account of the approaching festival. Had not Providence thus happily provided for them, their Christmas cheer must have been salt beef and pork. Some Madeira wine, the only article of provision that was mended by keeping, was still left. This in conjunction with the geese, which were cooked in every variety of method, enabled our people to celebrate Christmas as cheerfully as perhaps was done by their friends in England.
The inhabitants of Terra del Fuego, Captain Cook found to be of the same nation that he had formerly seen in Success Bay; and the same whom M. de Bougainville has distinguished by the name of Pecharas. They are a little ugly, half-starved, beardless race, and go almost naked. It is their own fault that they are no better clothed, nature having furnished them with ample materials for that purpose. By lining their seal-skin cloaks with the skins and feathers of aquatic birds; by making the cloaks themselves larger; and by applying the same materials to different parts of clothing, they might render their dress much more warm and comfortable. But while they are doomed to exist in one of the most inhospitable climates in the globe, they have not sagacity enough to avail themselves of those means of adding to the conveniences of life, which Providence has put into their power. In short, the captain, after having been a witness to so many varieties of the human race, hath pronounced, that, of all the nations he had seen, the Pecharas are _the most wretched_.
Notwithstanding the barrenness of the country, it abounds with a variety of unknown plants, and gave sufficient employment to the botanists of the Resolution. 'Almost every plant,' says Mr. Forster, 'which we gathered on the rocks, was new to us, and some species were remarkable for the beauty of their flowers, or their smell.
On the 28th of December, our commander sailed from Christmas Sound, and proceeded on his voyage, round Cape Horn, through Strait le Maire, to Staten Land. This famous Cape was passed by him on the next day, when he entered the Southern Atlantic Ocean. In some charts Cape Horn is laid down as belonging to a small island; but this was neither confirmed, nor could it be contradicted by our navigators; for several breakers appeared in the coast, both to the east and west of it, and the hazy weather rendered every object very indistinct. Though the summits of some of the hills were rocky, the sides and valleys seemed covered with a green turf, and wooded in tufts.
In ranging Staten Island, a good port was found, situated three leagues to the westward of St. John, and in a northern direction. Upon account of the day on which the discovery of this port was made (being the 1st of January), Captain Cook gave it the name of New Year's Harbour. The knowledge of it may be of service to future navigators. Indeed, it would be more convenient for ships bound to the west, or round Cape Horn, if its situation would permit them to put to sea with an easterly and northerly wind. But this inconvenience is not of great consequence, since these winds are seldom known to be of long duration. The captain, however, has declared that if he were on a voyage round Cape Horn to the west, and not in want of wood or water, or any thing which might make it necessary to put into port, he would not approach the land at all. By keeping out at sea the currents would be avoided, which, he was satisfied, would lose their force at ten or twelve leagues from land, and be totally without influence at a greater distance.
The extent of Terra del Fuego, and consequently that of the Straits of Magalhaens, our commander ascertained to be less than has been laid down by the generality of navigators. Nor was the coast, upon the whole, found to be so dangerous as has often been represented. The weather, at the same time, was remarkably temperate.
In one of the little isles near Staten Land, and which had been called by Captain Cook, New Year's Isles, there was observed a harmony between the different animals of the place, which is too curious to be omitted. It seemed as if they had entered into a league not to disturb each other's tranquillity. The greater part of the sea-coast is occupied by the sea-lions; the sea-bears take up their abode in the isle; the shags are posted in the highest cliffs; the penguins fix their quarters where there is the most easy communication to and from the sea; and the rest of the birds choose more retired places. All these animals were occasionally seen to mix together, like domestic cattle and poultry in a farm-yard, without one attempting to molest the other. Nay, the captain had often observed the eagles and vultures sitting on the hills among the shags, while none of the latter, whether old or young, appeared to be in the least disturbed at their presence. It may be asked, then, how do these birds of prey live? This question our commander hath answered, by supposing that they feed on the carcasses of seals and birds which die by various causes. It is probable, from the immense quantity of animals with which this isle abounds, that such carcasses exist in great numbers.
From Staten island, Captain Cook sailed, on the 4th of January, with a view, in the first place, of discovering that extensive coast, laid down by Mr. Dalrymple in his chart, in which is the gulf of St. Sebastian: In order to have all other parts before him, the captain designed to make the western point of that gulf. As he had some doubt of the existence of such a coast, this appeared to him the best route for determining the matter, and for exploring the southern part of this ocean. When he came to the situations assigned to the different points of the gulf of St. Sebastian, neither land nor any unequivocal signs of land were discovered. On the contrary, it was evident, that there could not be any extensive tract of country in the direction which had been supposed.
Proceeding in his voyage, land was seen on the 14th, which was at first mistaken for an island of ice. It was in a manner wholly covered with snow. From the person by whom it was first discovered, it obtained the name of Wallis's Island. It is a high rock, of no great extent, near to which are some rocky islets. Another island, of a larger compass, on account of the vast number of birds which were upon it, was called Bird Isle. A more extensive range of country had been seen for some time which Captain Cook reached on the 17th, and where he landed, on the same day, in three different places. The head of the bay, in which he came to shore, was terminated by particular ice cliffs, of considerable height. Pieces were continually breaking off, and floating out to sea; and while our navigators were in the bay, a great fall happened, which made a noise like a cannon. No less savage and horrible were the inner parts of the country. The wild rocks raised their summits till they were lost in the clouds, and the valleys lay covered with everlasting snow. There was not a tree to be seen, or a shrub found, that was even big enough to make a tooth-pick. The only vegetation, that was met with, was a coarse strong-bladed grass, growing in tufts, wild burnet, and a plant like moss, which sprang from the rocks.
When our commander landed in the bay, he displayed the English colours; and, under a discharge of small arms, took possession of the country in his majesty's name. It was not, however, a discovery which was ever likely to be productive of any considerable benefit. In his return to the ship, Captain Cook brought with him a quantity of seals and penguins, which were an acceptable present to the crew; not from the want of provisions, which were plentiful in every kind, but from a change of diet. Any sort of fresh meat was preferred by most on board to salt. The captain himself was now, for the first time, tired of the salted meats of the ship; and though the flesh of the penguins could scarcely vie with bullock's liver, its freshness was sufficient to render it comparatively agreeable to the palate. To the bay in which he had been, he gave, the name of Possession Bay.
The land in which this bay lies, was at first judged by our navigators to be part of a great continent. But, upon coasting round the whole country, it was proved to a demonstration that it was only an island of seventy leagues in circuit. In honour of his majesty, Captain Cook called it the Isle of Georgia. It could scarcely have been thought, that an island of no greater extent than this, situated between the latitude of fifty-four and fifty-five, should, in a manner, be wholly covered, many fathoms deep, with frozen snow, in the height of summer. The sides and summits of the lofty mountains were cased with snow and ice; and an incredible quantity lay in the valleys. So immense was the quantity that our commander did not think that it could he the produce of the island. Some land, therefore, which he had seen at a distance, induced him to believe, that it might belong to an extensive tract, and gave him hopes of discovering a continent. In this respect, however, he was disappointed; but the disappointment did not sit heavy upon him; since, to judge of the bulk by the apprehended sample, it would not have been worth the discovery. It was remarkable, that our voyagers did not see a river, or a stream of fresh water, on the whole coast of the Isle of Georgia. Captain Cook judged it to be highly probable, that there are no perennial springs in the country; and that the interior parts, in consequence of their being much elevated, never enjoy heat enough to melt the snow in sufficient quantities to produce a river or stream of water. In sailing round the island, our navigators were almost continually involved in a thick mist; so that, for any thing they knew to the contrary, they might be surrounded with dangerous rocks.
The captain on the 25th of the month, steered from the Isle of Georgia, and, on the 27th, computed that he was in latitude sixty, south. Farther than this he did not intend to go, unless some certain signs of soon meeting with land should be discovered. There was now a long hollow swell from the west, which was a strong indication that no land was to be met with in that direction; and hence arose an additional proof of what has already been remarked, that the extensive coast laid down in Mr. Dalrymple's chart of the ocean between Africa and America and the Gulf of St. Sebastian, doth not exist. Not to mention the various islands which were seen in the prosecution of the voyage, and the names that were given to them, I shall only advert to a few of the more material circumstances. On an elevated coast, which appeared in sight upon the 31st; our commander bestowed the appellation of the Southern Thule. The reason of his giving it this name was, that it is the most southern land that had ever yet been discovered. It is everywhere covered with snow; and displays a surface of vast height. On this day our voyagers were in no small danger from a great westerly swell, which set right upon the shore, and threatened to carry them on the most horrible coast in the world. Happily, the discovery of a point to the north, beyond which no land could be seen, relieved them from their apprehensions. To the more distinguished tracts of country, which were discovered from the 31st of January to the 6th of February, Captain Cook gave the names of Cape Bristol, Cape Montagu, Saunder's Isle, Candlemas Isles, and Sandwich's Land. The last is either a group of islands, or else a point of the continent. For that there is a tract of land near the pole, which is the source of most of the ice that is spread over this vast Southern Ocean, was the captain's firm opinion. He also thought it probable, that this land must extend farthest to the north, where it is opposite to the Southern Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Ice had always been found by him farther to the north in these oceans, than any where else, and this he judged could not be the case, if there were not land of considerable extent to the south. However, the greatest part of this southern continent, if it actually exists, must lie within the polar circle, where the sea is so encumbered with ice, that the land is rendered inaccessible. So great is the risk which is run, in examining a coast in these unknown and icy seas, that our commander, with a modest and well grounded boldness, could assert, that no man would ever venture farther than he had done; and that the lands which may lie to the south will never be explored. Thick fogs, snow storms, intense cold, and every thing besides, that can render navigation dangerous, must be encountered; all which difficulties are greatly heightened by the inexpressibly horrid aspect of the country. It is a country doomed by nature never once to feet the warmth of the sun's rays, but to lie buried in everlasting snow and ice. Whatever ports there may be on the coast, they are almost entirely covered with frozen snow of a vast thickness. If however, any one of them should be so far open as to invite a ship into it, she would run the risk of being fixed there for ever, or of coming out in an ice island. To this it may be added, that the islands and floats on the coast, the great falls from the ice cliffs in the port, or a heavy snow storm, attended with a sharp frost, might be equally fatal.
Nothing could exceed the inclination of Captain Cook, if it had been practicable, to penetrate farther to the south: but difficulties like these were not to be surmounted. If he had risked all that had been done during the voyage, for the sake of discovering and exploring a coast, which, when discovered and explored, would have answered no end whatever, or have been of the least use either to navigation or geography, or indeed to any other science, he would justly have been charged with inexcusable temerity. He determined, therefore, to alter his course to the east, and to sail in quest of Bouvet's Land, the existence of which was yet to be settled. Accordingly, this was the principal object of his pursuit, from the 6th to the 22nd of the month. By that day he had run down thirteen degrees of longitude, in the very latitude assigned for Bouvet's Land. No such land, however, was discovered; nor did any proofs occur of the existence of Cape Circumcision. Our commander was at this time no more than two degrees of longitude from the route he had taken to the south, when be left the Cape of Good Hope. It would, therefore, have been to no purpose to proceed any farther to the east in this parallel. But being desirous of determining the question concerning some land that was supposed to have been seen more to the south, he directed his course for the situation in which the discovery of it might be expected. Two days were spent by him in this pursuit, to no effectual purpose. After having run over the place where the land was imagined to lie, without meeting with the least signs of any, it became certain that the ice islands had deceived our navigators, as well as Mr. Bouvet.
Captain Cook had row made the circuit of the southern ocean in a high latitude, and traversed it in such a manner as to leave not the least room for the possibility of there being a continent, unless near the pole, and out of the reach of navigation. By twice visiting the tropical sea, he had not only settled the situation of some old discoveries, but made many new ones; and, indeed, even in that part, had left little more to be accomplished. The intention of the voyage had, in every respect, been fully answered, and the southern hemisphere sufficiently explored. A final end was hereby put to the searching after a southern continent, which, for nearly two centuries past had occasionally engrossed the attention of some of the maritime powers, and had been urged with great ardour by philosophers and geographers in different ages.
The great purpose of his navigation round the globe being thus completed, the captain began to direct his views towards England. He had, indeed, some thoughts of protracting his course a little longer, for the sake of revisiting the place where the French discovery is said to be situated. But, upon mature deliberation, he determined to lay aside his intention. He considered, that if this discovery had really been made, the end would be as fully answered, as if it had been done by himself. It could only be an island; and, if a judgment might be formed from the degree of cold which our voyagers had experienced in that latitude, it could not be a fertile one. Besides, our commander would hereby have been kept two months longer at sea, and that in a tempestuous latitude, with which the ship was not in a condition to struggle. Her sails and rigging were so much worn, that something was giving way every hour; and there was nothing left, either to repair or to replace them. The provisions of the vessel were in such a state of decay, that they afforded little nourishment, and the company had been long without refreshments. Indeed, the crew were yet healthy, and would cheerfully have gone wherever the captain had judged it proper to lead them; but he was fearful, lest the scurvy should lay hold of them, at a time, when none of the remedies were left by which it could be removed. He thought, likewise, that it would have been cruel in him to have continued the fatigues and hardships they were perpetually exposed to, longer than was absolutely necessary. Throughout the whole voyage, they had merited by their behaviour every indulgence which it was in his power to bestow. Animated by the conduct of the officers, they had shewn that no difficulties or dangers which came in their way were incapable of being surmounted; nor had their activity, courage, and cheerfulness been in the least abated by the separation from them of their consort the Adventure.
From all these considerations, which were evidently the dictates of wisdom and humanity, Captain Cook was induced to spend no longer time in searching for the French discoveries, but to steer for the Cape of Good Hope. He determined, however, to direct his course in such a manner, as to look for the Isles of Denia and Marseveen, which are laid down in Dr. Halley's variation chart. After sailing in the proper latitudes from the 25th of February to the 13th of March, no such islands were discovered. Nothing, indeed, had been seen that could encourage our voyagers to persevere in a search after them; and much time could not now be spared, either for the purpose of finding them, or of proving their non-existence. Every one on board was for good reasons impatient to get into port. The captain, therefore, could no longer avoid yielding to the general wishes, and resolving to proceed to the Cape without further delay.
Soon after our commander had come to this determination, he demanded of the officers and petty officers, in pursuance of his instructions, the log books and journals they had kept; which were delivered to him accordingly, and sealed up for the inspection of the Admiralty. He enjoined them also, and the whole crew, not to divulge where they had been, till they were permitted to do so by their lordships; an injunction, a compliance with which might probably be rendered somewhat difficult, from the natural tendency there is in men, to relate the extraordinary enterprises and adventures wherein they have been concerned.
As the Resolution approached towards the Cape of Good Hope, she fell in first with a Dutch East Indiaman from Bengal, commanded by Captain Bosch; and next with an English Indiaman, being the True Briton, from China, of which Captain Broadly was the commander. Mr. Bosch very obligingly offered to our navigators sugar, arrack, and whatever he had to spare; and Captain Broadly, with the most ready generosity, sent them fresh provisions, tea, and various articles which could not fail of being peculiarly acceptable to people in their situation. Even a parcel of old news-papers furnished no slight gratification to persons who had so long been deprived of obtaining any intelligence concerning their country and the state of Europe. From these vessels Captain Cook received some information with regard to what had happened to the Adventure after her separation from the Resolution.
On Wednesday, the 22nd of March, he anchored in Table Bay; where he found several Dutch ships, some French, and the Ceres, an English East Indiaman, bound directly for England, under the command of Captain Newte. By this gentleman he sent a copy of the preceding part of his journal, some charts, and other drawings, to the Admiralty.
[Footnote 9: With our navigators who had sailed round the world,
it was Wednesday, the 22nd of March; but at the Cape of Good Hope
it was Tuesday the 21st.]
During the circumnavigation of the globe, from the period of our commander's leaving the Cape of Good Hope to his return to it again, he had sailed no less than twenty thousand leagues. This was an extent of voyage nearly equal to three times the equatorial circumference of the earth, and which had never been accomplished before, by any ship, in the same compass of duration. In such a case, it could not be a matter of surprise, that the rigging and sails of the Resolution should be essentially damaged, and even worn out, and yet, in all this great run, which had been made in every latitude between nine and seventy-one, she did not spring either lowmast, topmast, lower or topsail yard; nor did she so much as break a lower or topmast shroud. These happy circumstances were owing to the good properties of the vessel, and the singular care and abilities of her officers.
On the remainder of the voyage it is not necessary to enlarge. Though it was conducted with the same attention to navigation and geography, and with the same sagacity in marking whatever was worthy of observation, nevertheless, as it was not employed in traversing unknown seas, or in discovering countries that had not been heard of before, it may be sufficient briefly to mention the places at which Captain Cook touched before his arrival in England. The repairs of the ship having been completed, and the necessary stores gotten on board, together with a fresh supply of provisions and water, he left the Cape of Good Hope on the 27th of April, and reached the Island of St. Helena on the 15th of May. Here he staid till the 21st, when he sailed for the Island of Ascension, where he anchored on the 28th. From this place he directed his course, on the 31st, for the Island of Fernando de Noronha, at which he arrived on the 9th of June.
In the progress of the voyage, our commander made an experiment upon the still for procuring fresh water; and the result of the trial was, that the invention is useful upon the whole, but that to trust entirely to it would by no means be advisable. Indeed, provided there is not a scarcity of fuel, and the coppers are good, as much water may be obtained as will support life; but no efforts will be able to procure a quantity sufficient for the preservation of health, especially in hot climates. Captain Cook was convinced by experience, that nothing contributes more to the health of seamen, than having plenty of water.
On the 14th of July, the captain came to anchor in the Bay of Fayal, one of the Azores islands. His sole design in stopping here was to give Mr. Wales an opportunity of finding the rate of the watch, that hereby he might be enabled to fix the longitude of these island with the greater degree of certainty. No sooner, therefore, had our commander anchored, than he sent an officer to wait on the English consul, and to acquaint the governor with the arrival of our navigators, requesting his permission for Mr. Wales to make observations on shore, for the purpose now mentioned. Mr. Dent, who then acted as consul, not only obtained this permission, but accommodated Mr. Wales with a convenient place in his garden, to set up his instruments.
BIOGRAPHY OF CAPTAIN JAMES COOK
CHAP. I. Account of Captain Cook previous to his first
Voyage round the World
CHAP. II. Narrative of Captain Cook's first Voyage round
the World in the years 1768, 1769, 1770, and 1771
CHAP. III. Account of Captain Cook during the Period
between his first and second Voyage
CHAP. IV. Narrative of Captain Cook's second Voyage
round the World in the years 1772, 1773, 1774, and 1775
CHAP. V. Account of Captain Cook during the Period
between his second and third Voyage
CHAP. VI. Narrative of Captain Cook's third Voyage in
the years 1776, 1777, 1778, and 1779, to the Period of his Death
CHAP. VII. Character of Captain Cook.--Effects of his
Voyages.--Testimonies of Applause.--Commemorations of his Services.--Regard paid
to his Family.--Conclusion